The objective need of modern society, especially in the conditions of the restructuring of all its links, including education, is the search for optimal ways to organize the educational process of rational options for the content of education and its structure. Modern psychologists and educators agree that the quality of performance of an activity and its result depend primarily on the motivation and needs of the individual. It is the motivation that causes purposeful activity, which determines the choice of means and methods, their ordering to achieve goals. The problem of motivation in learning arises in each studied subject. In the relevant methods and manuals developed ways of its development and stimulation, taking into account the specifics of the subject. However, the problem of learning foreign languages is particularly acute. Researchers of the question of motivation cite data on its decline from class to class. It is noteworthy that, up to the time of learning a foreign language and at the very beginning, students are usually highly motivated. They want to communicate in a foreign language with their peers; it is tempting to recite poems and sing songs in a foreign language; reading to learn about other countries.
Regarding motivation as the most important spring of the process of mastering a foreign language, ensuring its effectiveness, you need to keep in mind the following: motivation is a system of motivating impulses that guide learning activities, in case of a positive installation of a teacher, to a deeper learning of a foreign language, its improvement and a desire to develop needs knowledge of foreign language speech activity.
From here all difficulties of a call of motivation from outside. The teacher can only indirectly affect it, creating prerequisites and forming the basis on which students have a personal interest in the work. The teacher is the better at it, the more he manages to stand in the place of the student, to reincarnate in him. In this case, he can not only recognize the motives of the activity of the language, but also from within, evoke, develop and correct them. A prerequisite for such a mental reincarnation is a good knowledge of their students. The teacher should also imagine the whole arsenal of motivational means, all types and subtypes of motivation, and their reserves. Then it will be possible to accurately relate the content of the educational process throughout with the appropriate types of motivation, i.e. create a strong concomitant motivation that guarantees progress in mastering a foreign language.
Let us characterize objectively existing types of motivation, providing interested doctrine. Psychologists, studying the nature of the motivating forces and the ways of their regulation in the doctrine, established the diversity of the human motivational sphere, its complex structure.
Firstly, it can be influenced by social motives. They constitute extrinsic motivation.
Secondly, the nature of the activity as such can also influence the motivational — stimulating sphere of a person. This is called intrinsic motivation.
External motivation, as a rule, is distant, distant motivation, designed to achieve the final result of the exercise. Nevertheless, its stimulating effect on the learning process can be quite strong. It is at the very beginning, and sometimes even before learning a foreign language, it aims students at a “super task”. It is only important to build the process of learning in such a way that students at each point feel an ascent to the goal. External motivation is the motivation determined by the needs of society. Such motivation is associated with a sense of duty to the country, to loved ones. External motivation can be narrow — personal. It defines attitudes toward mastering foreign language as a way of self-government or as a path to personal well-being. Let's give an example.
– «I want to be an international translator is prestigious».
– «I do not like a foreign language, but must be a leader».
As you can see from these examples, external motivation can be both positive and negative. External motivation is closed with internal and is supported by it. Moreover, if external motivation performs in a certain sense a “strategic role” by setting the movement for the entire period of the exercise from the outside, then internal motivation is “tactical”, since it is “fueled” by the process of mastering a foreign language. This motivation is close and relevant; for the learning process should be structured in such a way that the students at each lesson would be happy to satisfy the needs specific to the subject foreign language. What are these needs and the corresponding types of intrinsic motivation? Consider the communicative type of intrinsic motivation as the main one. Communication is the first and natural need of foreign language learners. Informal conversations with students and special sociological polls showed that regardless of age and social status, all of them consciously and unanimously formulate their needs as purely communicative, namely: to speak a foreign language with a friend, colleague, read to broaden horizons, with a professional goal for fun, write to a foreign friend or colleague. It is the consideration of personal characteristics that leads to the emergence of situational communicative motivation, i.e. provides the initiative participation of the student in educational or real communication. Of all the variety of properties, personal individualization, providing a challenge to communicative motivation, traditionally offers to take into account six methodically most important properties of a student as a person: context of activity, personal experience, sphere of desires, interests, aptitudes, emotional — sensual sphere, worldview, student status in a group. All this encourages students to learn. This type of motivation is the most difficult to save. When mastering a foreign language in the atmosphere of a native language, a foreign language is an artificial means of communication. In accordance with the requirements of modern didactics, the teacher should set the students a certain lesson task, since activity arises only when the task is accepted by the student. Accepting a student's task is the starting point for the emergence of motivation. It is very important how the teacher introduces the objectives of the lesson. He should be able to form the task of the lesson, given their age characteristics and level of language training. Then he will be able to bring the task from the “methodological language” to the language of the students and invite them to study — communication. Students must also accept the content of the lesson. The experience of teachers shows that an interesting personality — entertaining text in itself, i.e. without additional training causes greater activity of students. The case of the teacher to give the lesson originality. Make it attractive. This can be achieved using facts and events, attracting as much cognitive material as possible. It is necessary to keep a balance between new and known information.}}}
This can be achieved by communicating the new about the known; by updating between subject links.
The organization of the lesson contributes to the preservation of communicative activity. Each lesson should be given a place to speech problems. There should be a conversational topic, as well as the use of collective forms of work. This is a work in pairs, a group, the use of drama, role-playing games. As you know, the skirmishers in the use of collective forms of work in foreign language classes are the authors of intensive teaching methods. Collective forms are quite acceptable in educational institutions, as they, on the one hand, correspond to the conditions for teaching a foreign language in a class, group, team, on the other hand, correspond to the very essence of the language as a means of communication, assuming the presence of partners. It is only important to accurately combine them with the specific tasks of the teaching and communication.
So, the prerequisites for the emergence of communicative motivation can be created when setting the objectives of the lesson, the relevant content and the corresponding organizational forms of the lesson, as noted earlier. All this is mediated by the teacher and depends entirely on his work style.
- Bim I. L. — Teaching a foreign language. Search for new ways // SIN. — 1989. № 1.
- Maslyko E. A. — Ways of formation of the motivation to master students of a foreign language // INR — 1995 — № 3.