This article is devoted to the features and formation of the terminological base. Identification of the conformity of the word to the concept, the name of which is the word, the need to determine the parameters of the concept.
Like other Sciences, a feature of biology is a terminological richness. There are terms many in any modern biological text. In some texts their more, in some — less. The history of biology significantly reflects the peculiarities of the terminological base formation. During the formation of science, Greek and Latin had a significant impact on its development. Currently, Latin terminology and its application is a tribute to tradition. It can be found in the description of species, such as botany and zoology. Historically, the centers of development of these sciences are located in England and the United States. Therefore, when we translating texts concerning the problems of modern biology, in fact, biology devoted to the problems of the existence of the genetic code. There are English words that have no equivalent in Uzbek speech: the names of genes and their products. Latin terminology and the names of genes, groups of genes and gene products can often not be translated from English into Uzbek. Another thing is special terms that are derived from Latin or Greek words, accustomed to both English and Uzbek languages.
Another thing is special terms that are derived from Latin or Greek words, accustomed to both English and Uzbek. For example, the well — known English word “cell”. In Uzbek, its equivalent is “hujayra”. The word “hujayra” has a Greek origin — kytos. As a rule, for a translator who is not a specialist in the field of biology, the translation of terms from Greek or Latin is particularly difficult. Their abundance in the text begins to confuse. One should not be afraid of such terminology. It is important to understand that very often it is simply transliterated from English into Uzbek. For example, the English word inhibitor in a special text does not necessarily transfer as “bosma material” it is enough to transliterate it — “ingibitor”. It is important to understand that many biological terms come to Uzbek from English, taking root in it without any changes. For example, the term “kaspaza”. Caspases are a special group of enzymes that specifically break down protein molecules.
The term “kaspaza” is an exclusively English abbreviation — caspase; sisteinga qaram aspartat o'ziga xos proteaz (in English it is a cysteine — dependent aspartate specific protease). What is remarkable, from all the above — mentioned English construction we have made a translation of only one word — dependent. Everything else was left unchanged.
How do you determine which terms can be transliterated and which cannot? The answer is simple — experimentally. A dictionary of biological terms can be used for this purpose. In general, any source of specific terms we can trust.
There is another feature of the translation of biological terms and texts, which should not be forgotten. Texts and terms related to biology should be translated into Uzbek as close as possible to the original text. That is the beauty of it. The fact is that the sentences of special texts, as a rule, have a clear and easy to understand grammatical structure (not counting quotes). The meaning of a simple device sentences — providing opportunities to understand them correctly to people who do not speak English at the level of a professional linguist. Today, a very large number of the results of various studies are published in English. English has a powerful influence on the formation of the terminological base of modern biology.
Based on the information provided above, it is possible to derive a simple algorithm that will allow without much difficulty to translate special texts on biology. It looks like this:
- Examine the sentence for words that may not be translated. With the help of special literature, you can try to reveal their meaning, although this is not always necessary. You can leave these words in their original form in the same place where they stand in the text of the original.
- Analyze the grammatical structure of the sentence: find the subject, predicate, determine the type of sentence (simple, complex), etc. This will help to understand what role in the sentence can perform special terms and how they are related.
- Make a translation of terms. Find out if they can be transliterated or not.
- Translate the rest of the words in the sentence. Correct the word order if necessary.
For example, we have the following sentence:
Propolis extracts have cytostatic activity in vitro.
- In this sentence, the term in vitro is present. He stands at the end. Its translation from Latin — “sinov naychasida”. It is used in describing the results of various studies and shows that the phenomenon in question was studied without the use of living organisms (laboratory mice, rats, other living beings), literally, in a test tube.
- The sentence is simple. Vigorena form — Present Indefinite. The verb “to have” is given for a plural noun — “extracts”. That is, extracts is a subject. The subject is preceded by the adjective “propolis”. After the predicate is the adjective cytostatic (has a characteristic ending), standing in front of “activity” — a word that has the characteristics of a noun. Having defined parts of speech, we can assume what function they perform in a sentence. We have adjective + noun (subject) + verb (predicate) + adjective + noun. An adjective describes an attribute of an object, a noun — names an object, a verb — names an action that performs that object (or is performed on an object). Simply prescribe the following formula — the first approximation to the translation: “Ba'zi hodisalar boshqa bir hodisa bilan bog'liq”.
- Do the translation of other words and slightly change the order of words in the text of the translation.
Propolis extracts have cytostatic activity in vitro. = Propolis ekstrakti sitostatik ta'sirga ega.
The proposed algorithm makes it possible to translate special texts on biology with relatively high accuracy. However, it is not perfect, and its use can lead to transliteration of terms that can and sometimes even need to be translated by equivalent without doing transliteration.
- Черных, П. Я. Историко-этимологический словарь современного русского языка / П. Я. Черных. — Москва: Изд-во «Русский язык», 1992.
- The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary on Historical Principles / Revised and edited by C. T. Onions. Vol. I, II. — Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.