Emotional Security and Its Relation to Emotional Efficiency Among Students of the University of Tikrit | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Рубрика: Психология

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №22 (260) май 2019 г.

Дата публикации: 21.05.2019

Статья просмотрена: 19 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Ibtisam Mahmoud M. S. Emotional Security and Its Relation to Emotional Efficiency Among Students of the University of Tikrit // Молодой ученый. — 2019. — №22. — С. 629-639. — URL https://moluch.ru/archive/260/59265/ (дата обращения: 18.07.2019).



The present research is aimed to identify the level of both emotional competence and emotional efficiency among students in Tikrit University, to discover the assumptions in statistical significance for variables of both gender (male and female) and specialty (exact and human sciences), as well as to research the relation between emotional security and efficiency of students of Tikrit University. The researcher formulates 54 paragraphs for definition of the emotional security measures, as well as 46 paragraphs for definition of measures of emotional competence, based on extracting of full characteristics of both scales. Six hundred students took part in the research; they were selected randomly. The researcher applied the scales on the base of search sample and processed the statistical data using a variety of methods including statistical test (T-test) and Pearson correlation coefficient, and found a set of following results:

1. The Tikrit University students possess a high level of emotional security,

2. The male students enjoy the emotional security more than female students do,

3. There is no difference between students of exact and human sciences specialization in variable of emotional security,

4. The Tikrit University students enjoy a high level of emotional competence,

5. The female students outperform the male students in emotional competence level,

6. The students of human sciences specialization excel at emotional competence those of other specialties,

7. There is a positive correlation between the variables.

On the base of research results, a number of conclusions, proposals and recommendations are provided.

The research problem concerns young people, especially college students as the most important, aware and accomplished strata of society, as they are an instrument of change and progress. The problem of emotional security is particularly very important, as we are in Iraq, i.e. in a society that has suffered from effects of wars and conflicts, as well as from huge economic and psychological pressures that have a clear impact on the security system of intellectual, social, emotional, and ethical partials of the society. Nowadays, the University community is affected by several factors that have a great impact on the ability to obtain the university education, to prepare to it and general tendencies. Being university students here means to be vivid personalities capable to face all the challenges during their studies; meanwhile, all the students are different. Therefore, among all the existing individuals who possess their own unique personalities, which differ one from another, college students are the most important work force for any community, being the source of energy and renewal, changes and production. According to German philosopher Goethe, the future of the nation stems from the energy of young students, elements of their prominent roles in the growth and progress of people. The evolution, being the point of application of the energies of community, which is capable to change all the spheres of life, is interested in process of upbringing and education of students during the whole history of civilizations (Arab, 2001). Knowing the individual psychological environment affects the way of perceiving the results, whether they are positive or negative ones. Facing the positive feelings generated by concepts, feeling themselves satisfied and self-confident, as well as possessing sense of efficiency and professionalism while meet the circumstances and surrounding situations, people deal with them without any anxiety or fear, and it helps to develop the feelings of security and reassurance. Meanwhile, the negative concepts drive an individual to perceive other environment as a source of threat, concern and frustration that reflects on feelings of security and tranquility (Hussain, 1987).

Without any question, stress, concerns, and feeling of loss of security had prevailed over political, economic and social sphere of our society for many years. According to Maslow, the sense of security comes from rule of the law, order and stability, as well as from providing an environment free from danger and threat; and it is obvious that even the mildest need for security makes individuals be nervous, kill them psychologically and socially (Valid, 1987).

The researcher believes that the insecurity causes generally many problems. It is understood that the concept of security is emotional, i.e. it is linked to emotions and feelings of individuals, and therefore, under the growing sector it must be saturated in a positive manner and resulted only in intellectual and behavioral deviations. Negative emotional security, such as employment problem, mistrust and fear of the future, is usually widespread among college students. The emotional security requires certain skills and many variables, including psychological and emotional competence. The emotional competence is critical and important in all areas of life; individuals who have a certain emotional experience are more successful in their social relationships. The increased interest in study of emotional competence among many researchers concerns its no denying role in influencing on all the developmental areas in both childhood and adolescence. The development of emotional competence is the process of acquiring of a set of interrelated skills that improve and strengthen the emotional management, control of compassion for others, as well as increase the positive social relationships and responsibility, and the ability to make decisions (Elias, Haynes, 2008). The main problem can be worded in following questions:

- What level of emotional security and emotional competence has an undergraduate?

- Is there any relation between these two variables?

Research Importance. The current era we live in, as well as its rapid changes contributed unprecedentedly to reducing of chances to meet prisoners and weakening of domestic dialogue, building barriers between fathers and sons; all these problems led to the appearance of vulnerability of the emotional security among children, loss of mental peace, and signs of emotional alienation. As a result, many children look for glow of emotions outside their families, many social deviations are observed, and many children and adolescents show tendencies to incorrect relationships as a means of satisfaction of their psychological needs. The researcher believes that the need for emotional security is the most important psychological and social one within the individual growth stages. Feeling of warmth and security promotes a sound growth in all the physical, psychological and social aspects, while the fear is one of the most important negative factors affecting the growth of individual and causing different personality disorders.

The emotional security is of great importance, especially in Iraq, i.e. in a society that has suffered from the effects of wars and conflicts, as well as from a huge economic and psychological pressure that has a clear impact on the security system of intellectual and emotional, moral and social partials of life of the society. Given the importance of emotional security, many Arabic and foreign studies deal with this issue. The emphasis of this research is placed on examining the emotional competence among many researchers, for the emotional competence plays an undeniable role in influencing on all the developmental areas in both childhood and adolescence (Denham, Blair, De Mulder, Lavitas Sawyer, Auerbach the Major, and Queenan, 2003).

Moreover, emotional factors play a big role in forming of emotional security. The academic success often follows the positive interaction with individuals, positive self-expression and emotional knowledge, as well as ability to learn emotions. On the other hand, the understanding concerning the compatibility or adaptation becomes more difficult under the individual disturbances in emotional and social areas. Therefore, such disturbances are a potential danger to a series of problems, which begin with academic difficulties and may end in drug addiction or delinquency in adolescence (Zins, Blood Weisbergm Walbergm Worth, 2007). The development of emotional competence is the process of acquiring a set of interrelated skills that helps to improve and enhance the emotional regulation, control, empathy, as well as helps to increase the positive social relationships, responsibility, and ability to make decisions (Elias, Haynes, 2008). The school managers and decision makers recognize the importance of efficiency enhancement and development of emotional competence among children of early age, and meanwhile, the combination of emotional and cognitive processes becomes a factor of children success at school (Zins et al., 2007).

The study by Maria, Bruce, Gerald and Leo Keating, 2009, was aimed to reveal the relation between the parental treatment and emotional competence among children during their first years of primary school. As the aim consisted in the revelation of relationship between behavioral reactions expressed by children and their level of emotional and social competence in different situations, the results showed a relationship between the emotional and social factors, and prediction of success at school.

Research objectives. The aims of the current research can be identified as follows:

1. Examination of emotional states of students of Tikrit University;

2. Exposure of statistical significant differences in emotional states of students of Tikrit University according to variables of gender (male, female);

3. Exposure of statistical significant differences in emotional states of students of Tikrit University according to variables related to their specialties (exact and human science);

4. Examination of emotional competence among students of Tikrit University;

5. Exposure of statistical significant differences in emotional competence among students in Tikrit University according to variables of gender (male, female);

6. Exposure of statistical significant differences in emotional competence among students in Tikrit University according to variables related to their specialties (exact and human science);

7. Identification of nature of the relation between the emotional security and emotional competence among students of Tikrit University.

Research frameworks are limited with the students of Tikrit University of the academic year 2018–2019 of both genders (male and female) and both specialties (exact and human sciences).

Identification of terminology

- Emotional Security: a need for psychological and social support requires verification by love and affection received by individuals during the years of their lives, especially at an early age; psychological environment includes also individuals, who express their emotions benevolently, listen to them and understand their needs. Thus, they feel security and stability, and adapt themselves to the surrounding environment and society (Abdat, 2014).

The theoretical definition of Emotional Security. A social and psychological need, which requires the emotional state saturation of individuals and which depends on the amount of love and compassion they receive from other persons, especially in early childhood, within the family and psychological environment the individual. The impossibility to express the outbursts conveniently under the lack of confidence in this security leads to negative reactions of behavior and mood, such as aversion, complaints and dissatisfaction.

Procedural definition. Emotional security is a degree to which the respondents get their results on the emotional scale designed for research purposes.

- Emotional competence: Saarni defined it as the ability to recognize and to understand the emotions and feelings of others, as well as the ability to organize and to express own emotions using appropriate and socially approved methods (Saarni et al, 2006). Mikolajczak Moira in his research in 2009 referred to the ability of individuals to process, identify, understand and manage their outbursts and other expressions of emotions (Mikolajczak, 2009).

The theoretical definition of emotional competence. Emotional competence is a set of abilities and skills that helps the individuals to understand and to control their feelings and emotions, and to deal with them appropriately; as well as it is also considered to be the ability to exploit own emotions for good performance and maintaining of good relationship with those around.

Procedural definition

Emotional competence is a degree obtained by answering on emotional efficiency on a scale prepared by the researcher for that purpose.

Literature review

First: Emotional security

Anselm Strauss was the first who noted the emotional security in his studies conducted in 1945; he considered it to be one of the most important needs, and he expressed his hope that the marriage process could satisfy the married ones with the need to secure the first of these emotional needs. According to Anselm Strauss, the emotional security is needed to level up the gratification; when each of a marriage couple through the emotional feelings towards the partner allows the other party to accommodate and understand emotions, such a relationship leads up to the highest satisfaction of being with a partner. Further, Henry Bowman dealt with this emotional concept in his research dated 1964, where he represented the reason that led one to marry as a need to satisfy the emotional saturation through the couple relationship.

Within the development of model of emotional security in the treatment of relations by the psychologist Catherall, this model focused on both attachment and esteem, stressing that every partner got the safety through awareness of the feelings of another partner towards these two constituents. If each party realizes that the other one is deeply attached, there is not any doubt in esteem, and both partners feel themselves emotional saturated. Otherwise, feeling of threat from any of these two sides leads to the loss of the feeling of emotional saturation. Under a negative reaction, such as an attack on the other side or threat of getting away from another partner, the reaction could be a threat to public safety. If one of the parties reacts negatively, in turn, an episode of abuse might start, in which reaction of each party toward the threat would consist in trying to reverse the threat addressed to the other party. Of course, it is difficult to regain the sense of emotional security, when the parties lose themselves in these loops of actions and reactions (Catherall, 2007).

Emphasizing the role of an individual, Adler indicated that sense of emotional security could not be achieved without the satisfaction of this need for saturation; moreover, according to him, one of the major goals of human endeavor was to reach this saturation. A person of sound mind realizes that life means both to give and to take, and that there are the others, who have their own needs they want to be satisfied, and this person of sound mind respects and understands their needs, being a part of the community (Abdul Ghaffar, 1977). Accordingly, the satisfaction of the need for emotional security is attained under open lines of communication and deep friendship between the parties. That, in turn, requires to listen to others' thoughts and feelings, their considerations and concerns without any comments, criticism or attack on their words and actions, as well as to allow expressing themselves safely in loving presence without any fear of rejection or aversion. This requires that everyone has an own response towards love; indeed, this condition is a conscious and deep mature process but perhaps the only process by which human beings can reach the deepest depths of their characters. Therefore, love is the finest human exercised process due to which all the physical, psychological and mental components exercise the highest function.

Moreover, the human entity is the most profound and pervasive one (Bayoumi, 1999). Given that the sense of emotional security requires the ability to declare love; this study addresses the importance of love as a concept of social, psychological and emotional needs (Al-Jawziyyah, 2003). Feeling emotional is the first thing kids need psychologically, i.e. they need to feel that they are loved as individuals, and they are the subjects of love and pride of their parents (Desouki 1979).

Based on the above-mentioned scientists and their researches, this experience plays an important role in the growth of sense of security among the individuals. The results of their researches confirms the impact of childhood experiences on development of feelings of security; the ones, who did not get an adequate family kindness, were less secure, less confidence, but more anxious, than those ones who got the kindness of parents (Saad, 1999).

The study by Rihani dated 1985, confirms that the parental upbringing in a democratic and tolerant way leads to development of sense of security among children more, than one with using of authoritarian methods. Based on the quality of relationship between children and parents, as well as on responsibility of parents to children's needs, kids develop internal working models regarding their security and safety. The concordance to children's expectations, which the parents acquire, is based on the responsibility and parental care, and it promotes to discovery new situations by kids, within which they perceive their parents as their security rule. Whilst the children, who do not live in adequate families, go wrongly, are less secure, self-confident and more concerned, than those who grow up with continuous kindness of effective parents. This fact explains that emotional relationship between children and persons who take care of them, i.e. mother, father or both, is the main source of satisfaction of children's basic needs (Rihani, 1985).

The concept of emotional competence. Emotional competence refers to one's ability to enunciate own internal feelings, i.e. emotions, which implies also taking into account the convenience of surrounding people, and determines one's ability to control and express own emotions effectively and successfully. The emotional competence is also known as one of the basic social skills such as perception, interpretation or constructive response on own and others' emotions. The concept of emotional competence is rooted in understanding of emotions as normal and useful aspect of being. The anger is considered to be a reaction to aggressive behavior; although the anger is usually seen as a negative emotion, it gives a person a mean to repel of aggression, and sometimes can be expressed as a mean of protection, or reaction on grief. Frustration or absence of love leads in its turn to getting of sympathetic responses from others, and finally the fear, which is known as a risk response and which has a clear physiological effect of doubling of our senses, accelerates all the done responses (Elias, Haynes, 2008).

Thus, it is obvious that the dizzying highs of emotions can be useful to avoid the hurt, embarrassment and mortifying; but the necessity of learning to oppress the inappropriate feelings is a part of the natural community. The suppression of some feelings or others allows avoiding conflict or discomfort in psychology, finally this can lead to ability to control on them; however, it may be in turn unhealthy for them and for all the parties involved. Normal persons express their feelings emotionally in a manner appropriate to the situation and needs of others, and try not to suppress their feelings, and their reactions are appropriate and in concordance with the feelings of surrounding people (Elias, Haynes, 2004).

Some psychologists believe that if appropriate emotions are expressed on a regular basis, those feelings are stored in memory or misplace as unresolved issue. This may also lead to inability to deal with other states or emotional thoughts, or to keep the emotional behavior. Future events may reaffirm old feelings leading to inappropriate emotional responses or may lead to the lack of any reaction or emotional competence. It concerns mostly to children's feelings.

That may be truly and very important for children, because they have not yet learned to feel appropriately, while the facts are incompatible with their goals, or because the emotions could be misunderstood or misused. The adults' advices can help to express feelings or the accumulated emotions of children. The emotional competence can lead to health improvement thanks to avoiding of stress that in turns leads to suppression of emotions, and can lead to improvement of relations. In this case, possible appropriate feelings would be less likely expressed, appropriate behavior would be avoided for fear of provoking some emotions. Thus, the human resources can be considered as a real and useful basis (Elias, Haynes, 2008).

The concept of Emotional competence as it was proposed by Goleman, contains two main components:

- Self-efficiency: the way we conduct ourselves in our day life;

- Social competence: the way we conduct ourselves in dealing with relationships.

Emotional competence skills

 Awareness of a person's emotional state, including the possibility that one is suffering from multiple sensibilities;

 Skill in distinguishing the feelings of the others, based on situational cues and in expressing with a degree of cultural consensus regarding the emotional meaning;

 Skill in using of the terminology of passion and common expressions within one subculture, as well as major matureness in skills levels of getting cultural texts that connect passion with social roles;

 The ability to empathize and to participate in other emotional experiences (Elias, Haynes, 2004);

 The skill in understanding that the internal emotional state does not need to correspond to the outer expression, both in oneself and in others, and, on more mature levels, in understanding that person's behavior affects emotional and expressive on the others, as well as in taking it into account in the self-presentation strategies;

 skill of adaptive adjustment concerning influencing or frustrative emotions by using of some self-regulative strategies, which can mitigate the strength or duration of these emotional states (for example, audacity and stress);

 Awareness of structure and nature of the relationship, which is determined partly by both degree of passion or originality of view and degree of interchangeability or similarity in the relationship; for example, mature intimacy is defined through mutual participation or mutual of real feelings, while the relations between parent and child may be disproportionate and sharing real feelings;

 Ability for own emotional effectiveness: the individuals see themselves in general as the way you want to feel them, and the emotional self-efficiency means that one accepts the emotional experience, whether it is unique, peculiar cultural, or traditional, and that this acceptance is in line with the individual's beliefs about which emotional balance is desirable (Elias, Haynes, 2008).

Research methodology and procedures. The next paragraphs contain a set of procedures adopted by the researcher to verify the research objectives and premises. The information below concerns the research methodology, describes and specifies the research community, as well as provides the data related to the tools and statistical methods used for analyzing of data to achieve the objectives of the research.

Research Methodology

The aim of the current research consists in determination of the relationship between the variables of emotional competence and emotional security and is one of the types of descriptive studies, i.e. relational ones. A simple relational research relates to searching of relationship between two variables, namely of any link between the first and the second variable.

Research community consists of students of the Tikrit University of both genders and different scientific disciplines: 19,765 students of 21 Colleges of the University, studying both exact and human sciences, 11,087 of them are males and 8,678 of them are females.

Research sample was selected on the base of colleges affiliated to Tikrit University, from the students of the third year of both genders (male and female) and both disciplines (exact and human sciences). The total amount of such students is 3,750.

Research sample consisted of 600 students, who were selected from University students and several faculties; the research sample was divided by specialties and gender randomly. The Table 1 presents the proportional distribution below.

Table 1

Distribution of respondents by gender and specialties

Total

Percentage

Female

Percentage

Male

Specialization

Exact sciences

174

29 %

121

20 %

295

Human sciences

180

30 %

125

21 %

305

Total

354

59 %

246

41 %

600

Research Tools: the researcher followed some certain steps during the preparation of this tool as a covenant with variants of this research, as follows:

AThe first tool. A measure of emotional security: by building the emotional security measure, the researcher had conditions based on scientific standards of honesty, firmness and differentiation. The following steps were taken:

– the concept of emotional security was defined;

– the researcher reviewed scientific literature, some previous studies and relevant standards in order to define the concept of the variable as a necessity for psychological and social needs, which depends on love and human warmth got by individuals during the years of their lives, especially at the early stage of life. This variable includes also the psychological environment of individuals within which they can express their emotions comfortable, where they are listened to and where one understands their needs, and thus they feel themselves secured and stabilized, and adapt themselves to the surrounding social environment.

B – Wording of paragraphs of scale: the researcher prepared 64 paragraphs to measure the emotional security. Each paragraph had 5 alternatives to choose, these were "applied perfectly", "applied to many", "sometimes applied", "applied to a little", "does not applied at all". The researcher took into account by preparing of the scale the following: 1. All the paragraphs for the sample search were worded intelligibly. 2. All the wordings used for the paragraphs were univocal.

Face validity: in the purpose of virtual honesty, the researcher offered the tool to a group of experts and specialists on educational and psychological sciences for their assessment and guidance, and got their agreement concerning 80 paragraphs. According to Ebel, the best way to make sure the honesty of the tool is to subject the tool a virtual assessment by a few experts in order to decide, how representative are the elements to be measured (Ebel, 1972).

Instructions for alignment of the scale: 60 students were chosen randomly and from both of specialties among all the students of University. Based on the results of application, a clear and understandable scale of passages was shown, and it ranged from average time spent for answering the scale, i.e. 35 minutes.

Statistical analysis of the test: a random sample of 300 students from the research community was chosen to achieve this standard. After applying the sample, the students’ answers were corrected, then a total grade for each member of the sample statistical analysis was extracted, and then the grades were arranged in descending order and proportion, where the top group had a result of 27 %, and the minimum proportion of excluded group was 46 %. Thus, the total number of individuals in the upper and lower sets amounted 162 students; the level of differentiative power of the paragraph and the rank correlation of paragraph coefficient were as follows:

Differentiative power of the paragraph

Differentiation was calculated as a difference between two extremes by using two independent T-tests. All paragraphs functioned statistically when the calculated balancing T-values, indexed value of 1.96, the level indication of 0.05, and the degree of freedom of 160. This indicated that all paragraphs except five had a good distinction. Thus, five paragraphs of the scale were deleted, and the number of paragraphs amounted 54.

Relations of paragraphs with the scale

Pearson correlation coefficient was used to find the relationship between link of each paragraph of the scale and the total grade scale, ranging between the values of correlation coefficients from 0.30 to 0.57. Moreover, in order to make sure of the moral significance of the correlation coefficients, these were converted into transactions of T-values, which were calculated using equation of moral significance of the correlation coefficient. As a result, correlation function of every emotional passage was prepared for measurement of T-values calculated ranging between 5.23 and 11.98, what is greater than the tabular T-value of 1.96 and degree of freedom of 298.

Reliability of scale stability was calculated in two ways:

A. Re-test: to create a consistency in this way, the scale was applied on a random sample of 60 students, then, 15 days after, the same scale was reapplied on the same sample. After correction of answers and using Pearson coefficient, the correlation coefficient was found between students grades got during the first application and their grades got during the second one, and it amounted 0.85.

B. Internal consistency: the researcher checked the consistency in such way that the persistent sample of 60 students subjected to statistical analysis and corrected the results with the reliability coefficient of 0.81. After the completion of test preparation, the final scale of 54 paragraphs was formed, which was confirmed through analysis of marking paragraphs.

Correction of paragraphs. The researcher followed a number of measures to correct the paragraphs: the alternatives of answers "applied perfectly", "applied to many", "sometimes applied", "applied to a little", "does not applied at all" with ratings from 5 to 1 respectively were given. The lowest possible result taken from a student was 54, the top notch was 270, and the average amount of imposition amounted 162.

B – The second tool: emotional competence scale. The researcher reviewed a range of foreign literature and previous studies, as well as the modern Arabic ones that concern the concept of emotional competence and its relationship with some variables.

1. Definition of the concept of emotional competence: reviewed the theoretical heritage concerning the emotional competence, the researcher defined four variable and fixed constituents of the concept; these are self-awareness, control of emotions, self-assessment, and understanding of social relations. Then the researcher presented the result to a group of experts and arbitrators on educational and psychological sciences to know their opinion concerning the validity of his statement.

2. The wording of paragraphs

The researcher designed an open questionnaire for the students to ask them to answer the questions. After that, the researcher defined the concept of emotional competence and distributed the questionnaire among a random sample of 40 students of the third year, chosen in equal numbers from both engineering and science faculties. After the unloading of questionnaires, the researcher got 56 paragraphs.

Preparation of alternatives answer:

Preparing alternatives for the questionnaire, the researcher used scaling method by Lekert; five alternatives of every answer were put in order to define the grade of applicability, as follows: "applied perfectly", "applied to many", "sometimes applied", "applied to a little", and "does not applied at all". Every of alternatives was also provided with a correct descending order from 1 to 5 for the positive paragraphs and from 5 to 1 for the negative paragraphs respectively.

Face validity

The researcher reviewed the scale together with the initial group of experts on education and psychology to allow them to express their opinions about the validity of paragraphs, as well as where fits the area to measure of emotional competence among the students in Tikrit University. They reviewed also the suitability of specific alternatives to answer and made some amendments to paragraphs, and in the light of their views and feedback, the scale was modified, some paragraphs were deleted, and the total number of scale components amounted 48.

Clarity of instructions, comprehensibility of paragraphs and time required for answer

The researcher selected a random sample of 40 students in order to know, how clear the instructions and paragraphs of the scale were, as well as in order to detect the paragraphs that were ambiguous in terms of language and content, as well as to determine the time required for answer on the scale. The students were asked to identify whatever they found vague and unclear. The test showed that paragraphs and instructions were clear and understandable to students, and some appeared questions concerning the content were not worth mentioning. It took time from around 15 to 20 minutes, with average time indicator of 18 minutes

Correction the scale paragraphs

The selected paragraph got a degree from 1 to 5 depending on the positive or negative quality ("applied perfectly", "applied to many", "sometimes applied", "applied to a little", "does not applied at all") and it was awarded from 1 to 5 points in the positive case, so the following paragraph was given negative points from 5 to 1 respectively. Statistical analysis of emotional competence:

A. Method of contrasted movements for two groups: the researcher applied the scale to a sample of 300 students from both specialties (exact and human sciences) for the purpose of verifying the differentiative power. After correction of responses, the forms were arranged, descending in the light of that the researcher chose an arrangement of 27 higher and 27 lower degrees and included both 81 groups. The form got by the researcher was processed using statistical methods, program SPSS processed the data through T-test. Two independent T-tests were performed and resulted in that all the valid values except two showed the computed tabular T-value of 1.96 when the level indication of 0.05. Thus, the number of scale paragraphs amounted 46.

B. Internal consistency of relationship degrees of total paragraph: Pearson correlation method was used to extract the link between relationship degrees of all paragraphs of the scale with its class. To achieve this purpose, one needs to extract the correlation coefficients between each paragraph of the scale with its class. After applying the T-test to calculate the correlation indication, it emerged that all correlation coefficients functioned statistical when comparing the calculated indexed T-value of 1.96, the level indication of 0.05 and degree of freedom of 298.

  1. Honesty and validity: All the necessary procedures to extract the measure of sincerity were described in research by Kidder dated 1987. It concerned the test in terms of genre vocabulary and how to draft and extent the paragraphs, as well as it included the instructions to the test and parameters of its accuracy, clarity, objectivity and relevance to the purpose of the test, in order to get honest answers of the virtual respondents. The goal was achieved through the presentation of alternatives to standard clauses and instructions to a group of experts on educational and psychological sciences to allow them to assess the validity of paragraphs related to emotional competence standard, as well as to check this kind of honesty through precise definition of behavioral phenomenon which dealt with the scale by distributing the paragraphs and introduction of expert opinions.
  2. Reliability. Reliability refers to the consistency of test with itself during the measurement of any value (Ahmed, 1981), and the constant scale is a reliable measure (Kenlinger, 1973). In order to verify the consistency of the scale, the researcher applied the emotional competence scale on the randomly selected sample of 40 students in a simple way. The researcher provides the reliability using two ways, as follows:

A. Consistent way of retesting, or Test-Retest Method: to calculate the reliability of a test, one needs to apply the method of point to the outer harmonies of stability through time (Dawes, 1972) twice on the same sample of individuals (Virkson, 1991), the reliability coefficient got through this way, i.e. the stability factor, is the index of stability (Moses, 1990). In other words, the first experiment should be reapplied on the same sample and under the same conditions 15 days after. For the purpose of calculating stability in this way, the researcher applied the scale on the sample of 40 students, and using Pearson equation, extracted the correlation coefficient between the student results. The application degree amounted 0.88, and it is considered to be an acceptable result; according to research by Issawi dated 2000, the tool has an acceptable stability, if the correlation coefficient amounts between 0.70 and 0.90.

B. in order to find Alpha-Cronbach coefficient, the stability modulus of Alpha-Cronbach of the emotional competence scale was extracted, which also measures the internal consistency and coherence between the constituents; the reliability degree in this way was equal to 0.92.

Final version of the scale

As a result, the test consisted of 46 paragraphs, distributed on four areas, as it is shown in Table 2 below.

Table 2

Finalized splitting of paragraphs fields

No

Field

Paragraphs

1

Self-awareness

12

2

Emotions control

10

3

Self-assessment

13

4

Perception of relations

11

Total

46

Results and discussion

The first display of the results

The first objective consisted in measurement of the emotional security level of the University students. The researcher applied security measure to achieve the objectives of the present research, while investigating the sample of 120 emotional students. The sample was extracted as a whole with the indicator of 175.51, and the standard deviation amounted 7.35. In order to know the emotional security level, the researcher used one sample T-test in order to compare the sample with the average indicator of this speculation of 162; the calculated T-value of 45.02 was greater than the tabular T-value of 1.96, under the level indication of 0.05 and the level of freedom of 599. The table 3 illustrates this.

Table 3 shows the arithmetical value, standard deviation, and calculated T-value of indexed sample of students in the measurement of emotional security.

Table 3

Signification

Tabular

T-value

Calculated T-value

Supposed value

Standard deviation

Arithmetical value

Significant at level (0,05)

1,96

45,02

162

7,35

175,51

Moreover, the table above shows that the Tikrit University students possess a high level of emotional security.

The second objective was to know the emotional security level of students according to their gender. According to the table 4, the arithmetical value of emotional security of males on the scale is 137.75 and the standard deviation is 15.07, while the arithmetical value of emotional security of females is 134.13 and the standard deviation is 13.39. Using two independent T-tests, the researcher found that the calculated T-value of 3.098 was greater than the indexed value of 1.96, and the level of statistical significant function was 0.05. Thus, according to the arithmetic indicators of students, one can conclude that males enjoy the emotional security more than females do.

Table 4

Difference between male and female scores in themeasurement of emotional security

Sample

Amount

Arithmetical value

Standard deviation

Calculated T-value

Tabular

T-value

Signification

Male

354

137,75

15,07

3,098

1,96

0,05

Female

246

134,13

13,39

The third objective was to know the level of emotional security between students according to variable of specialty, i.e. exact or human sciences. According to the Table 5, the arithmetical value of emotional security indicator among students of exact science specialties is 135.30 and the standard deviation is 14.79, while the arithmetical value of emotional security indicator among students of human science specialties is 136.67 and the standard deviation is 13.92. Using two independent T-tests, the researcher found that the calculated T-value was 1.16 and it was greater than the indexed value of 1.96, and the level of statistical significant function amounted 0.05. This means that there is no difference between the students of exact and human sciences specialties as for the emotional security variable.

Table 5

Difference between the students of exact and human sciences specialties on ascale of emotional security

Sample

Amount

Arithmetical value

Standard deviation

Calculated T-value

Tabular

T-value

Signification

Exact sciences

295

135,30

14,79

1,16

1,96

0,05

Human sciences

305

136,67

13,92

The fourth objective consisted in identification of the level of emotional competence among students in Tikrit University. The researcher used one sample T-test to detect the level of emotional competence and to estimate the difference between a sample value and value of loyalty to scale, which amounted 138, as it is demonstrated in the Table 6.

Table 6

Results of one sample T-test to denote the difference between the arithmetical average and the supposed value of this speculation in measurement of the emotional competence

Variable

Arithmetical value

Standard deviation

Supposed value

Freedom degree

T-value

Signification

Calculated T-value

Tabular T-value

Emotional efficiency

168.67

17.75

138

599

34.55

1.96

Significant

Table 6 demonstrates that the calculated T-value of 34.55 is greater than the indexed value of 1.96 under the significance level of 0.05 and the degree of freedom of 599, when comparing the arithmetical value of 168.67 and the standard deviation of 17.75. This speculation with the indicator of 138 revealed the difference between the average values and arithmetical value. This means that the level of emotional efficiency of respondents is high. This result suggests that the students of Tikrit University enjoy a high level of emotional competence and this result calls for optimism: despite of negative psychological, social and economic conditions, which a University student is forced to face, as well as manifestations of daily pressures, they possess the emotional efficiency. Therefore, the positive repercussions that allow them to cope with all the pressures and problems may be the witness of mature character. College students are on the degree of maturity that enables them to keep their emotions back. They are so emotionally efficient in control of their feelings, behavior and negative emotions that they rein, fluent understand and know the feelings of others, as well as have an ability to live in harmony with their social environment, and can express their feelings in a socially acceptable manner. They also can contribute positively to their activity, and that gives them a sense of satisfaction and happiness, making them able to solve problems, to control the expression of emotions precisely and appropriate, as well as to face the difficult situations with confidence and to look at life with optimism and positive.

Fifth objective of the research consisted in the identification of indicators of differences in emotional competence among students in Tikrit University depending on the variable of gender, i.e. within the dichotomy male-female. To achieve this goal the researcher used two independent T-tests; after the received data was statistically processed, the results showed statistical differences in emotional competence between male and female students. Therefore, the indicator of female students amounted 168.94 under the standard deviation of 16.89, while the average results of male students amounted 165.12 under the standard deviation of 19.25. The calculated T-value was 2.98 that is greater than the tabular T-value of 1.96, under the level indication of 0.05 and degree of freedom of 598, as it is shown in the Table 7.

Table 7

The results of T-tests for equality. Indicators of differences in emotional efficiency depending on the variable of gender (male or female)

Sample

Amount

Arithmetical value

Standard deviation

Freedom degree

T-value

Signification

Calculated T-value

Tabular T-value

Female

246

168.94

16.89

598

2.98

1.96

Significant

Male

354

165.12

19.25

According to the results shown in Table 7, the female students outperform the male students on the emotional level. The researcher believes, it is due to the women are more emotional inherently than men, and it is consistent with the nature of their functions and pivotal role within the family. This regulation has a positive impact on the emotions of the dominance of female personality, and this in turn makes them effective in decision making and attitudes, discipline and perseverance. The passion consists of repeating of certain feelings and emotion links. If we gaze mothers' passion, how this passion forms the life and how all the troubles and difficulties about this unique passion and love are to maintain the activity, we can compare this with a gem, which does not become finished without efforts of a heart. They are able to control their emotions and feelings due to the nature of family and in order to up-bring their children in a proper manner.

The sixth objective was to indicate the differences in the level of emotional competence among students in Tikrit University according to the variable of specialty, i.e. exact or human sciences. The Table 8 demonstrates the differences in the level of emotional competence investigated in light of variable of specialty. The results show that the arithmetical value of emotional competence level of students of human sciences specialties amounted 170.65 under the standard deviation of 16.92, while the arithmetical value of emotional efficiency of students of exact sciences specialties was 166.70 under the standard deviation of 18.39. Separate indicators differences underlaid the T-value calculation, and it was found that the calculated T-value of 3.16 was greater than the indexed value of 1.96 under the level indication of 5.0 and the degree of freedom of 598, as it is shown in the Table 8.

Table 8

Results of two separate T-tests in emotional efficiency depending on the variable of specialty, human or exact sciences

Sample

Amount

Arithmetical value

Standard deviation

Freedom degree

T -value

Signification

Tabular T-value

Calculated T-value

Exact sciences

305

170.65

16.92

598

1.96

3.16

Significant

Human sciences

295

166.70

18.39

The results shown in Table 8 give evidence that the students of human sciences specialties excel the students of exact sciences specialties on emotional efficiency

The seventh objective consisted in identification of the nature of the relationship between emotional security and emotional competence among students in Tikrit University. Using Pearson correlation to uncover the relationship between emotional security and efficiency linked to emotions, the researcher found that the value of the correlation coefficient was equal to 0.71. This indicates the presence of correlation between the variables, namely the increase of one of the variables is always accompanied by increase in other variable and vice versa.

Conclusions

Based on the mentioned above, one can conclude the following:

  1. A high level of emotional security of university students is observed;
  1. There are statistical significant differences among average values of results of respondents depending on the variable of gender and male interests;
  2. There are not any statistical significant differences between respondents depending on average values;
  3. Both high level of emotional competence and lower level of emotional competence are observed (b);
  4. Statistical significant differences exist among the average values depending on the sample variable of gender and male interests in pattern (b);
  5. There are no any statistical significant differences between respondents depending on average values concerning the variable of specialty;
  6. A relative contribution of variable of emotional competence (a-b) in the dependent emotional variable is observed.

Recommendations

The researcher recommends doing the following:

– to prepare for the emotional life, as well as to the emotional, psychological, and social compatibility;

– to educate the students about the concept and the nature of emotional security in general, and emotional competence in particular;

– to conduct training seminars and courses concerning the concept of emotional security and to recognize the emotional problems of students;

– to provide an access to the emotional security measures by educational guides to determine the holes in emotional security;

– to provide the possibility of organizing meetings with parents to make them aware of how to deal with their children. To start a pilot program aimed to development of safe AATI among students.

Suggestions

  1. To conduct a study similar to the current research on the base of the other samples and to compare its results with the results of the current one,
  2. To conduct an experimental study, an experimental program oriented to the emotional development among students of junior high schools,
  3. To track the study to learn the emotional competence and emotional security in view of university level.

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