Speaking or expressive speech is a complex multi-faceted process that allows you to perform oral verbal communication with listening .
The content of speaking is the expression of thoughts orally. At the core of speaking, there are pronunciation vocabulary, grammar skills. In the communicative method, we rely on the scheme “Formation of the skill of developing speech skills,” while it is important to understand that the skill is formed under conditions adequate to speech.
Speaking is a productive (expressive) type of speech activity, through which, together with listening, verbal communication is performed. The content of speaking is the expression of thoughts, the transfer of information orally. Speaking as a type of speech activity is characterized by the following key parameters:
– Motive — the need or need to speak;
– Purpose and functions — the nature of the impact on the partner, the way of self-expression;
– Subject — own or someone else’s thought;
– Structure — actions and operations;
– Mechanisms — comprehension, anticipation, combination;
– Means — language and speech material;
– Speech product — types of dialogues, monologic statements;
– Conditions — speech situations;
– The presence or absence of supports.
At the core of speaking there are productive pronunciation, rhythmic-intonation and lexical-grammatical skills. Foreign language speaking as a complex integrated skill is distinguished by the speaker’s motivation, activity and autonomy, purposefulness, connection with thinking, situational conditionality, and heuristics. For a greater or lesser role of independence in the programming of verbal and speech utterances, there is a distinguished initiative (active), reactive (responsive reactive) role of independence in the programming of oral and verbal utterances, which distinguish his initiative and reproductive speech.
Consider the external structure of speaking. It consists of the following parts:
- Motivational and motivating: the creation of a statement of expression for what (need), why (motive, the urge of the interlocutor) and what to say (goal);
- Analytic-synthetic: at this stage, the preparation of the realization of the utterance is being prepared. When speaking in a foreign language, students need to select the words stored in the memory (analysis) and include them in the speech unit (synthesis) for the implementation of the plan. In order for words to be stored in memory, it is necessary that they overgrow with paradigmatic and syntagmatic connections, the more these connections, the higher the “readiness” of the word to be included in speech. A paradigmatic connection implies associations when juxtaposing words on various grounds (by proximity / opposite of meaning). A special role for speaking is played by syntagmatic connections, i.e. a combination of a word with other words. In the analysis, the selection of ready-to-use units of a foreign language. It works the motor plan, there is a recollection of verbal means. In the synthesis — completion, construction, combination — grammatical structuring of the phrase, which in the study of a foreign language is very difficult;
- Control-executive — external registration of voice and control, the task of which is to signal possible errors and help to correct them. This requires a reference, which is formed as a result of language practice.
All of these parts make up the structure of speaking as a type of speech activity.
There is a close connection with other types of speech activity, primarily listening.
Linguistic and psychological studies of speech activity indicate that oral and written forms of communication, with all their inherent features, are not separate systems, as well as receptive and productive forms of communication.
If we turn, for example, to the comparative characteristics of listening and speaking, it should be stated that they are characterized by complex mental activity based on inner speech and a prediction mechanism.
The main difference of these two processes is their final links — coding of information for speaking and decoding for listening. The coding process implies mastery of the phonological system of the language. Hearing, which is not supported by speaking, can lead to a distortion of the auditory images and complicate the formation of acoustic-articulation skills.
A brief comparative analysis of the two forms of oral communication shows not only the close interaction of listening and speaking, but also their organic connection with reading and writing.
The letter arose on the basis of sounding speech, as a way of fixing the sounds of a language for the preservation and subsequent reproduction of information. Reading is like a transitional form from speaking to writing, combining the signs of both.
Each speech activity is normally provided by the combined work of several analyzers, however, the function of each of them remains strictly differentiated, and the relationship between the analyzers is dynamic, mobile, changing when moving from one form of speech communication to another. For example, the connection between the auditory and speech-motor analyzers is not absolute, but depends on many factors, primarily the complexity of mental activity, the form of communication (oral or written), the language difficulty of the text, the speech experience of students in their native and foreign languages and etc.
The success of teaching speaking depends on the individual — age characteristics of the students, on the linguistic and discourse characteristics of the texts and, finally, on the motivation of the students and the learning conditions. Obviously, speaking skills are not formed by themselves, they need to be trained in accordance with the steps described above and using special exercises. No less important condition for successful learning to speak is the systematic control of the formed skills and abilities of speaking.
Techniques and forms of control should meet the following requirements:
- Perform not only controlling, but also training function.
- To be adequate, i.e., aimed at checking one form of communication.
- To be interesting for students and to meet their age features.
- Do not require effort to verify and process the results. Certain indicators of the level of development of speaking skills are the following parameters:
– the number of words / phrases in the message;
– the number of simple and complex sentences;
– the number of replicas in the dialogue;
– the ability to behave adequately to the goals and objectives of communication;
– linguistic means used by the speaker (diversity, degree of thematic generalization, correctness of use);
– the semantic value of the utterance (the degree of informativeness, connectivity, deployment, compliance with the situation).
Speaking skills that are the object of control at the senior and profile-oriented stage of training:
– to conduct a conversation in connection with the content of what was read and heard;
– make a coherent message (prepared);
– as well as a detailed story with the expression of own opinion and a narrative and descriptive message;
– make an unprepared statement on the topic / situation;
– commenting heard / read.
- Rogova G. V. Methodology of teaching foreign languages in secondary school / G. V. Rogova, F. M. Rabinovich, T. E. Sakharova. — M.: The Enlightenment, 1991. — 287 p.
- Learning to speak in a foreign language: studies. manual / ed. E. I. Passova, E. S. Kuznetsova. — Voronezh: LEO «Interlingua”, 2002. — (Ser. Methods of teaching foreign languages; № 11).