Commercial migrations in the ancient and medieval Central Asian region and their effects on Ustrushana | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Автор:

Рубрика: История

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №20 (258) май 2019 г.

Дата публикации: 21.05.2019

Статья просмотрена: 3 раза

Библиографическое описание:

Шодмонов, М. М. Commercial migrations in the ancient and medieval Central Asian region and their effects on Ustrushana / М. М. Шодмонов. — Текст : непосредственный // Молодой ученый. — 2019. — № 20 (258). — С. 419-421. — URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/258/59323/ (дата обращения: 07.12.2021).



Historiography notes that nomadic herdsmen living in steppes and deserts of Eurasia belonged to the Orthodox Orthodoxy in the II millennium BC. Their tribes lived in the eastern part of the Dnieper to the east, and the Andronovo communities that lived in the area from Urals to Enisey. In the II millennium BC these tribes, from their first homeland to the south, entered Iran and India through Central Asia. These tribes of the Bronze Age, inhabited by steppes from the Lower Volga to the east, are known as Andronovo cultures in archaeological literature [1]. Monuments of Andronovo culture extend from the western Kazakhstan to the south-western Baykal, from the west of southern Siberia to the southeastern regions of the Ural Mountains. From the Bronze Age, these Turkic tribes (Andronovo communities), moving from the Eurasian steppes to Anderea, were able to enter deserted oasis and retreat in favorable conditions for farming [2]. This historic process is particularly well-known in the Bronze Age settlements in Zarafshan River.

One of the fundamental problems of ancient history of the peoples of Central Asia is the mass delinquency of nomadic herders and their impact on ethno-cultural processes. In analyzing the relationship between the dehkans and the livestock population in a given area, which of these two types of economic entities has played a leading role, when the tendency towards the development of society has grown, and The correct interpretation of the idea of ​​the form «from nomadic to cities» plays an important role. If we look at the historical development of the Mediterranean Syr-Darya region up to the Middle Ages, avv The III and the III century AD — the Qing dynasty and the first Middle Ages (from the 5th to the 8th century) play a special role.

At the same time, due to various factors, the entry and exit of immigrants is especially noticeable. There are also increasing numbers of communities in rural areas, such as Ustrushon, in the oasis, and in rural areas.

Ethnic interethnic interethnic nations play an important role. Such ethnic processes were especially intense when Ustrushana was part of the Confederate State of Kang. The ethnic processes that took place in the Qunq era were so complex and extensive that, due to the political stability at the time, the enthronement of many peoples, immigrants to farming, the nomadic, interconnected processes. A. A. Askarov said that in the Q'anq era, firstly, in the Syrdarya river basin, in the central regions of Qang, Ferghana, Ustrushana, as an ethnical unit, and secondly, within the same ethnocultural union, and, thirdly, an ethnically unified space for almost the same development within the framework of the territorial unity, and fourthly, the formation of the two types of anthropological type — Central Asian two — river interval, belonging to the Uzbek people; the newly formed Confederation of the Confederation of the state, ie the political state, which was formed around the new ethnocentrism, and at the second stage of the Uzbek ethnogenesis of the Uzbek people there were a number of factors that characterize the Uzbek nation [3]. Studies in Ustrushon also help to confirm these ideas. It is in Qang's time that there is a combination of north-eastern nomadic tribes on the Syr-Darya River, in the east of the Sak-Sarmatian groups, and in the south — a mixture of ethnic groups engaged in cultivation. As a result, Ustyushona's ethnic appearance and anthropological structure of the Ancient Antiquity also form the species.

Collected anthropological information in Ustrushana was in the last quarter of the millennium and it was a time when the tremendous movement of the tribes had passed. As a result of subsequent historical processes, Ustrushana's population of locusts, crocodiles, trade and cattle breeding, belonging to the type of eurofoid (dolixochefal), begins to interact with the type of brachialeal type.

In general, it does not mean that Anstrakhan population of Ustrushona was formed separately from the border region of the Mediterranean Syrdarya. The effects of the subsequent Middle Ages (Qovunchi culture) seem to have had a definite appearance on the Ustrushana population.

The pre-Islamic rulers — the central palace of the Afshin Palace — were uncovered by the Buccusana rulers' headquarters, Bunjikat (Qa'lai Qahqaha in Shahristan). The main features of the outer appearance of the ruler and palace manifested on these tablets are the body's color, its facial structure — slightly frown on its facial nostrils, slightly twisted on its nose and brachychaefal on its head, or in the VI-VIII centuries The images of the rulers described in the coins also show the above figures, which indicate that they are typical of the Turkic — «Central Asian two river spaces». The above information indicates that a long period — from the beginning of the antiquity to medieval Ustrushanada, has spread to the «Central Asian two river spaces». Studying the Kultepa Cemetery for the Next Period A. A. Gritsina draws attention to the Mongolian elements of anthropological appearance of 27 corpses (seven men, nine women and nine children) mentioned in the book, «The Sobot's European race, the eastern Mediterranean the type of sea-typical population, the composition of the Mongolian clusters, the type of two inter-river spaces of the Eucalyptus is formed in Central Asia [4]. "Thus, in some parts of Ustrushana, ethnic processes related to the anthropological appearance of the population also took place in the later period.

One of the largest waves of many cattle-breeding population in the Euro-Asian steppes was observed in antiquity, especially in the last quarter of the millennium BC. In this epoch of ancient times, it is connected with the penetration of Yongji, Ushun, Hun and other tribes to the inner regions of Central Asia, especially to the southern regions. Meanwhile, many livestock populations came from Eastern Turkestan, from Ferghana, Shosh Ustrushana, and Sogdiana to northern Bactria and to northern India. This also had a great impact on social-political processes in Utrecht. The Dynasty has always been China's economic and political rivalry with the Han Empire.B. C. At the beginning of the 2nd century hunts became more intense, and 26 of the western states were established, even if they were to establish ties with swords. At the same time, the expedition of the Huns to the inner part of the state of Qand is intensified. B. C. During the period between 73 and 48 years, the Huns were openly rival, the Central Authorities weakened, and the Han dynasty ruled over hunts. In the fights between the two countries, the Han dynasty was heavily laden, avv In the second quarter of the first century, the population of the state of Qand began to penetrate. the population group could have a great impact on the formation of the cultivated culture.

Sources show that these migratory processes and the nomadic culture have a great influence on the nomadic traditions of the nomads (khans) living in the steppes of Central Asia. A. Khodjaev, \ The information quoted suggests that the place where the animals were located later lived. Some of Sakaka and Minchu remained in their places without moving to the Amu Darya River and to the south. Over time, however, they did not use their former name as part of the software.

Historical sources point out that not only the cultivated agriculture but also the urban development culture of Chong, Eloquette, Ustrushana, which was in the vicinity of the Confederate State, the culture has also been shaped and developed. The influence of the livestock population living in the vast steppes, mountains and foothills around the oasis, and the subsequent erosion, has increased on the social-political and ethno-cultural life. The findings of the souvenir found in Ustrushana confirm that the movement of immigrants through the Syr Darya and the way to the south has had a great impact on the cultural life of the peoples of the country. This is due to the fact that Ustrushana is a major binding zone.

In short, instead of historic civilization, Ustrushana's historical geographical location plays an important role. This geographical area consisted of economic and cultural centers connecting two historic civilizational centers between the Tashkent oasis and the Zarafshan valley. This is evidenced by archaeological finds found in the ancient and medieval written sources.

Литература:

  1. Андрианов Б. В. Историческое взаимодействие кочевых культур и древних земледельческих цивилизаций в свете концепции о хозяйстве культурных типах. M.: 1950. –С. 10–11.
  2. Кузьмина Е. Е. Происхождение индоиранцев в свете новейших археологических данных...–С. 101–125.; Грантовский Э. А. Раняя история иранских племен Передней Азии. –М.: 1970. -С.351–358.
  3. Асқаров А. А. Ўзбек халқининг этногенези ва этник тарихи.T.:2007.- Б.231.
  4. Грицина А. А., Усманова Е. Л. Изучение могильника XII — начала XIII в. на городище Культепа..T.:1978. –С. 200.
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): III, VI-VIII.


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