The article describes the methods and forms of teaching speaking in the process of teaching English.
В статье описываются методы и формы обучения говорению в процессе обучения английскому языку.
Learning any languages require a big effort. There is a well-known proverb about knowing different languages “If you know one language you are one man, and if you know two languages you are two men.” It is obvious that learning another language is about becoming another person. And my theme is about teaching speaking skills to the students. The main purpose of teaching a foreign language at schools or universities is to develop their nature in order to become a good communicator. The key task of teaching foreign language is to prepare students to the real life communication. In order to speak in any language it is necessary to compare two types of conveyance processes. The very first one is communication in an actual life and the second one is communication inside of a lecture room.
We may not have enough opportunities to practice our English with native speakers. But we have our classmates and friends whom we can to talk to. Inside the classroom it might seem difficult to practice. The dominant member of the speaking club is a teacher.
She or he should lead the students and should support all of them to participate and speak equally. There are thousands of methods to make students speak fluently in English. Some people say it depends on teacher weather their students are successful in speaking or not. However I do not agree with that. Because the only and main thing any teacher can give you is a motivation. When you are motivated you can learn everything by your own. All the students lack of motivation. When teacher uses different methods in the class it is much more better than using the same, old ones. Old methods should be left in the past because new generations require new thing with a new technology.
During the last university years we had many lessons containing teaching methods. Inside the classroom we only learn about types and ways how to teach. But when it comes to a real station I mean at school it becomes much more difficult. When I was fourth year student I worked in an English course for about five months. And I can surely say that it was a huge experience for me to teach children. Up to now I have obtained several strategies about teaching speaking.
Speech is a process of communication by means of language. Children can tell a story that they have been through or they can make up sentences looking at pictures that trainer has given. We can call these methods as storytelling. If the participators do not obtain enough possibility and tasks to exercise speaking ability in language classroom, they may get dishearten soon in learning. Activities should be designed to reveal the students to the goals language and expand students’ motivation to gain the language in group. Numerous analyzers think that story learning plays an essential position in students’ language blooming (Hsu, 2005). Absolutely all types of absorbing storytelling are used in dissimilar situation which rely on the appropriate for students’ age and situation.
Explanation can help ESL students enhance more self-assurance to convey themselves impulsively and creatively as well (Colon-Vila, 19970) [4, 5]. Furthermore the storytelling is not just serving to refreshing students’ interests, but also in improving their language capabilities (Koki, 1998). As an example you can give any theme for the group and tell them to make up a story one by one. First student can utter any sentence from his mind. For instance it can be like this: Once upon a time when I lived with my grandparents I had a lot of friends. Then the next student says his part: I always went to school by foot. Then the next: On the way to home I always sing a song. And so on. Also you can use this method differently. One of them says any sentence and the other one should create a sentence which starts from the last letter of the previous sentence. Let me put it to you in this way: My dog has a long teeth and it barks very loudly at nights. (the sentence ends with the letter “s”) Susie afraid of the dogs and whenever she tries to love them they run away. (the sentence ends with the letter “y” it means that next sentence should start from the same letter) Yellow dogs are so beautiful that you just want hug and kiss them.
Some approaches the trainers use for tutoring speaking.
There are two types of speaking: monologue and dialogue. Since each construction has its oddities we have to speak of teaching monologue and teaching dialogue individually. [1,3]In teaching monologue we may effortlessly discriminate three phases according to the degrees which represent the ability to express your thoughts: (1) the declaration level; (2) the articulation level; (3) the dialogue level. [2,6]
1. No speaking is feasible until students learn how to make up sentences in the non-native language and how to make assertion. To expand pupils' abilities in making declarations the following strategy can be proposed:
Students are given sentence samples to assimilate concerning the state.
The word formation pattern is charging with various words. Consequently students can articulate different notions.
Pattern practice, certainly, makes no presence of being. But, pattern practice transmission is what playing scales and arpeggios are to an instrumentalist. Every pattern will have to be replicated many times with a considerable diversity of changes in its contentment until the motif becomes a style. [1,2]
1. Undergraduates make sentences of their own regarding with the situations submitted by the tutor. When students can make statements in the foreign language in semantics and lexicon they have assimilated their talking may be more convoluted. They have to master to integrate statements of different sentence patterns in a thinking sequence. [3,2]
2. Students are instructed how to use non-identical sentence patterns in an utterance about a thing, a topic offered. First of all they are to accompany a model, and then they do it without any support.
The present-day instructions are additionally to the processes given by the educators in the classrooms. The magic is real in that it aids the tutees to strengthen their language learning in a productive way. Lastly, the interviews manifest us that ESL learners trust that using technology, mainly using academic technology tools helps them to intensify their both language and communication skills. They use the technology device both outer and inside of the lecture room to exercise English and learn more about reading, listening, speaking and writing skills. In their interviews they are all concur on profit of using technology while learning a current language and a contemporary culture. According to the interviews, ESL students gave some illustrations about some technological techniques which helped them to practice English and boost their exact skills.
Before graduating the university, on the fourth year of our education we will have a long internship at different schools. The main purpose of long term internship at schools is to examine our education in a practical way. So we have to do our best in order to show what we have gained within four years of education. At the first day of our internship we acquainted with the members of N.Ondasynov school. Our supervisor showed us our school and children whom we will teach for four months. After that day we got acquainted with our timetable (schedule). During the four months we had to give two lessons which one of them was in English (public lesson). Teacher offers many themes for us and we will choose one of them in order to be prepared for the public lesson.
While having internship I used various techniques to make my children to speak. Throughout them the most effective one was “To make up a sentence for the given words” This type of teaching useful for the students and children who are struggling to utter his\her opinion in front of the audience. Teacher may give five or ten minutes to the participators to get ready. They can use their copybooks, papers but not mobile phones or ready sentences. A person who is leading this game should be creative and motivate students to make up sentences by their own. They have enough word stocks in their minds but they cannot use them in their speeches. When they make up a sentence they use those words. In order to remember a word for the rest of your life they should be used and repeat them each day.
- Celce-Murcia. M. 2001. Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language (3rd ed). USA: Heinle&Heinle.
- Harmer, J. 1984. The Practice of English Language Teaching. London: Longman.
- Nunan, D., 2003. Practical English Language Teaching. NY: McGraw-Hill.
- Colon-Vila, A. (1997). Storytelling in an ESL classroom. Teaching PreK-8, 27(5), 58–59.