Content of Teaching Speaking at Language Universities | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Рубрика: Педагогика

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №18 (256) май 2019 г.

Дата публикации: 08.05.2019

Статья просмотрена: 97 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Жумаева, С. М. Content of Teaching Speaking at Language Universities / С. М. Жумаева. — Текст : непосредственный // Молодой ученый. — 2019. — № 18 (256). — С. 32-34. — URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/256/58603/ (дата обращения: 25.01.2022).



Traditionally, there are three components of the content of teaching speaking: linguistic, psychological and methodological. The linguistic component is the reproduction of linguistic and speech units that are learned in certain learning situations within specific topics; psychological — in mastering the skills and abilities of expressive speech; methodological — in the ability to use supports, consciously perform the operations necessary for the implementation of speaking, to create their own supports for mastering monologic speech.

Depending on the content, the monologue speech is divided into description, message (story), and reasoning; on the degree of autonomy — reproductive, productive; on the degree of preparedness — prepared, partially prepared, unprepared speech.

The teaching program includes the following types of dialogic unity: dialogue — one-sided questioning, two-way questioning, exchange of opinions, expression of the will.

Structural dialogues are micro-dialogues (based on the same type of dialogical unity, which are in logical-semantic dependence) and thematic macro-dialogues (include several micro-dialogues). In addition, the methodology identifies free and standard dialogues with clearly defined roles, involving the use of stereotypical language material.

When learning dialogic speech and monologic speech, it is important to understand what actions students learn. The simplest action is a reproduction — through it, students learn the basic speech structures and their lexical content (the younger the students, the easier the reproduction is given to them):

My name is (partial reproduction). I live in Uzbekistan. → Lola lives in Uzbekistan (transformation of live — lives). I have a book (big, English) → (extension).

Combining goes beyond skill level and is already associated with skill. For example, I am fond of music. Today I am at the concert.

Support in the development of skills and abilities of speaking are linguistic, speech and content. The latter for dialogical speech are divided into verbal and non-verbal. Their number and choice are determined depending on the specific learning conditions: age and level of general education of students; language proficiency level; features of the speech situation; the nature of the speech task / degree of understanding of the speech task by all participants of communication; individual personality trainees.

When teaching monologic utterance, various types of supports are used. For example: visibility (picture, story in pictures, croquet schematic drawing, photo, poster, filmstrip, real subject); text (of any content, but linguistically simple, plot, descriptive, informative, which students can state, discuss, etc.); theme (formulated at different levels of abstraction and relating to different spheres of life and learning activities); maxim (proverb, aphorism or a popular expression, which may give rise to a monologue essay); exposition (a small volume of material — a newspaper message, a caricature, a theatrical program, an announcement, a micro-story, a presentation of different points of view — everything that contains problems, a stimulus for discussion, an expression of one’s attitude, etc.; situation (a summary of real or imaginary circumstances and provisions, encouraging students to monologue speech in the genre of the story, commenting, descriptions, etc.); landmarks (points of a plan or a scheme of a statement, keywords or phrases opening up micro-topics of a text).

At the initial stage, visual pillars are widely used. It is important that the pillars are complex (aimed at both the language form and the content of speech): pictures, a series of pictures, video films — to master the skills of using previously learned language material (lexical, grammatical) in independent statements.

Sequence of use of support at the junior stage: subject and visual clarity; text; situation; theme.

This sequence changes at the middle and senior stages of training, where the support scheme (the beginning, the main part, and the conclusion) is widely used as a support for the development of monological skills.

The subsequent dynamics of the development of monological skills goes in the direction from the description of pictures on the subject to the construction of a story on a topic that is close to the student.

Students' speech acquires the quality of informative monologic speech on the topic. At the stage of improving monological skills on supports (text, visibility, situation, commenting on pictures), their speech acquires a truly communicative nature.

Of particular note is the importance of such a support as a text when teaching monologic speech. Working with the text involves a series of exercises related to its retelling. Retelling text on questions, keywords, etc. with the expansion of the context, replacing situations in the text, inventing the end of the text on the first part read, etc., develops many of the qualities of monological skills.

Work with the text, especially at the stage of improving monological skills, takes place in creative exercises (discussion of the actions of heroes, critical evaluation of actions and events, etc.).

The topic, as a rule, is the final stage of work on the improvement of monologic utterance. Learning monologue speech based on text has a number of advantages. First, the text sufficiently outlines the speech situation, and the teacher only needs to use it to generate students' speech utterances and partially modify it with the help of speech attitudes and exercises.

Secondly, competently selected texts have a high degree of informativeness, which means that they predetermine the meaningful value of students' speech utterances and contribute to the realization of educational goals of instruction.

Thirdly, authentic texts of various genres provide a good linguistic and speech support, a model for imitation, and a basis for drawing up your own speech statements on the model.

The meaning of supports: they unload memory, help structure the utterance (where to start, what to say next, how to complete the utterance), take into account three levels of speech generation (motivational-incentive, analytical-synthetic and executive).

The main purpose of learning to speak is to develop the ability of students to perform verbal communication in a variety of situations. After graduation, the following requirements are put forward for the level of training graduates in the field of speaking. Graduates should be able to:

a) to conduct a dialogue in situations of official and unofficial communication in the everyday, social, cultural, and educational and labor spheres, using arguments, emotional and evaluative means;

b) tell, reason in connection with the subject studied, the problems of the texts read / heard, describe events, present facts, make reports;

c) create a verbal sociocultural portrait of one’s country and the countries of the language being studied [2].

Graduates of linguistic universities with in-depth study of a foreign language should possess speech skills that would allow them to communicate in more situations, while inaccuracies are allowed using language means.

Training of graduates of linguistic universities should be different in such a level that would allow them to use the language, taking into account professional-oriented and personal interests. Their statements should be characterized by a variety of linguistic means, the development and validity of judgments.

University students should be able to easily move from one topic to another. In this case, there are allowed: insufficient fluency, inaccuracies, the use of language means, which, however, should not interfere with natural speech communication.

References:

  1. Galskova N.D, Gez N. I. The Theory of Teaching Foreign Languages: Linguistic Didactics and Methods: studies. Allowance. M., 2004.
  2. Sample programs in foreign languages// Foreign lang. at school. 2005. № 6. Pp. 2–30.
  3. Zhinkin N. I. Speech as a conductor of information. M., 1982.
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): современный танец, SEAD, культурное наследие, танец.


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