In the Republic of Kazakhstan, all prerequisites for the development of entrepreneurial activity are intensively created, in particular, a lot of work has been done on the privatization of property, which creates a solid economic basis for the development of entrepreneurship, which means society as a whole. The country thrives thanks to entrepreneurs, and entrepreneurs — thanks to the support of their states.
The formation of small business in the Republic from the first days of economic reforms is one of the priorities of the state’s economic policy. The business class is an integral attribute of a market economy, an independent subject of economic relations. Most entrepreneurs belong to the so-called middle class, which ensures the stability of not only the state economy based on the market economic system, but also influences the political processes in society, avoiding a departure from liberal and market values.
Entrepreneurship as a form of initiative activity aimed at making a profit (entrepreneurial income) implies:
1) the implementation of direct productive functions, i.e. production of a product (product) or provision of a service (for example, an engineering company, a travel company, a design office);
2) the implementation of intermediary functions, i.e. the provision of services related to the promotion of goods to the market and its transfer in the proper (socially acceptable) form from the direct producer of such goods to its consumer.
Public understanding of the problem comes down to the fact that, on the one hand, the first type of entrepreneurial activity is of priority, because social wealth (as a generalized summary of the level and quality of life of each member of society) depends on the state of affairs in the sphere of material production, scientific and service On the other hand, such a public attitude towards this type of entrepreneurship in practice is not really of a priority nature — society contributes to the development of the second type of entrepreneurial activity, i.e. mediation. Why? First of all, because the level and quality of life, convenience and comfort of each member of society largely depend on the level of development in the society of the intermediary sphere (convenient for the buyer, organization of trade, advertising, home delivery, ordering goods by mail, telephone, etc.) d) The same applies to consumers of industrial goods.
But such a public perception of mediation is not the only and main reason. The main thing is different — intermediary entrepreneurial activity, its presence and complexity leads to reasonable limits:
1) to increase the productivity of direct producers of goods based on the deepening of specialization
2) to accelerate the rate of turnover (circulation) of capital;
3) to saturate the commodity markets to objectively required dimensions and the functioning of direct producers in accordance with the interests of the final consumers.
Depending on the content of business activity and its connection with the main stages of the reproductive process, there are different types of business: industrial, commercial, financial, intermediary, insurance.
Entrepreneurship is called production if the entrepreneur himself directly, using tools and objects of labor as factors, produces products, goods, services, works, information, spiritual values for subsequent sale to consumers, customers, trade organizations. Thus, the function of production in this type of business is the main, decisive.
Entrepreneurship in the field of direct production of goods can, therefore, focus on the production and supply to the market of traditional or innovative products. The practice of entrepreneurship in any form includes the innovation process. The above division of business types is based on the conviction that the production and supply to the market of traditional goods is also carried out using some new methods or techniques related to the organization of production, the technical elements of production or changes in the quality characteristics of the goods produced.
In commercial entrepreneurship, an entrepreneur acts as a merchant, a merchant, selling finished goods purchased by him from other persons, to a consumer, to a buyer. In such an enterprise, profit is generated by selling goods at a price higher than the purchase price. Note that if the goods are acquired legally, then commercial and commercial entrepreneurship should not be called speculation and condemn on this basis. It is only when illegal resale is observed in violation of the rules of trade that one can speak of forbidden, criminal speculation.
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