The article considers the improvement of measures of state support for light industry enterprises of the Republic of Kazakhstan, as well as issues of global trends in the development of markets and light industry enterprises. Analyzed the individual trends of the global textile market at the present stage. Summarized the global experience of state support of light industry. Country factors and applied innovative methods and tools for managing enterprises and the industry as a whole, which provided the comparative advantages of countries in the rating, are identified.
Keywords: light industry, government support, investment, industrial policy, management tools.
Light industry is a socially significant industry that provides employment for the able-bodied population. This is especially topically in our time, when under the influence of negative external factors, a crisis in the global economy, employees of a number of enterprises are released. And light industry provides mobility, the ability for a short period of time to retrain, switch to another type of activity. Maybe it will be less paid than in a large factory, but the person will provide himself with a stable income.
Considerable attention is paid to the development of light industry in many countries of the world, since this industry has a considerable socially-economic significance, ensuring high employment of the able-bodied population. The importance of the industry is that in terms of consumption, it occupies the second position, second only to the consumption of food products. It accounts for 5.7 % of world industrial production, more than 14 % of those employed. Production of textiles and clothing is an important source of income and employment in many countries, including developing ones. The industry is characterized by constant growth due to the growth of the Earth’s population and an increase in its well-being. Thus, over the past 15 years, consumption of fabrics and clothing has increased in the EU countries by 90.5 %, in the USA — by 99.3 %, in Japan — by 220 %.
Kazakhstan in the structure of the manufacturing industry, the share of light industry is only 1.1 %, and in the overall structure of industrial production — 0.36 %, these are very negligible figures.
At present, almost all commodity items designed to meet the needs of Kazakh people in clothing, shoes and textiles, local producers are significantly less than imports — the share of imported products in commodity resources exceeds 90 %.
The impact of imports is especially strong in the consumption of outer clothing (97.5 %), footwear (97.2 %), and knitwear (almost 100 %). Over the year, the share of imports in the resources of finished fabrics has greatly increased from 75 % to 50 % .
The only sector where local Kazakh producers dominate is the production of raw materials for textiles, cotton in Kazakhstan is completely domestic production.
Light industry lacks state investment attention — a comprehensive plan for the development of the industry, calculated for 2015–2019, was approved by the relevant ministry in 2014, and many of its provisions are outdated and not relevant.
The government doesn’t have a specific plan for how to reanimate domestic light industry — the forecast of socially-economic development for 2017–2021 years only states that the government will work to promote light industry products in the domestic market, to create a mechanism for joint promotion of EAEU light industry products to parties in third of countries.
World analyzing shows that various measures are being taken to support light industry. In developing countries (China, Turkey, India and others), light industry is declared as a priority for the development of the national economy. In most of them, programs have been developed to support light industries, including measures of state support for manufacturers, aimed at:
Tax and customs regulation. So, in China, manufacturers of products of light industry are set preferential tax treatment. In Turkey, imported equipment for the industry is not subject to duties and VAT.
Direct government support for exporting enterprises. In Turkey, exporters are granted targeted concessional loans, a full or partial refund of taxes included in the cost of export products, partial compensation of expenses for scientific developments (survey) to improve the quality of export products, insurance of export operations, and so on;
Creation of business infrastructure. In this respect, the experience of China is interesting, the provinces and cities of which specialize in the production of certain types of products (fabrics, knitwear, hosiery, women's clothing, etc.). To support and improve the competitiveness of products, create an innovative basis for the development of the industry, the provincial authorities are promoting the formation of business infrastructure in their territories — technology parks, including quality control centers, service, training, information, logistics centers and computer-aided design models, research institutes for the study of textile properties;
Upgrading equipment and technology. In India operates Technology Update Program for the textile and jute industries. A feature of the scheme is the 5 percent compensation of the credit institution that issued funds to companies for technology upgrades. Interest on the purchase of machines made at a low technological level is not reimbursed. Stands out concessional loans to upgrade equipment and technology .
Government support for the industry has allowed developing countries to:
occupy a leading position in the global export of light industry products. The leading global textile manufacturers are China (10 % of world textile exports), Hong Kong, Germany and Italy (8 % each); sewing products — China (17 %), Hong Kong (12 %), Italy (7 %), Turkey, Mexico, the USA and Germany (7 % each);
Upgrade basic equipment in a short time. Over the past 10 years, China and Turkey have completely updated the existing fleet of weaving machines, in Russia the rate of renewal was 1.5 %;
Improve the quality of products .
In Kyrgyzstan, quite favorable conditions have been created for the development of light industry. For example, we monthly taxed all manufactured products. In Kyrgyzstan, the garment workers pay only an annual one-time payment from each sewing machine, the so-called patent fee, which is not tied to the products. The customs duty on the import of fabrics in this country is 5 %, while in our country it is from 12 to 20 %. It turns out that the final noncompetitive price for our goods is already on the border.
As for other examples, in Uzbekistan the purchase of cotton fiber for production purposes is provided with a 15 % discount on the cost of cotton fiber purchased at world prices, there is an exemption from payment of customs duties on dyes, accessories and accessories that are not produced in the republic for imports for the needs of the passenger car .
Sewing enterprises mainly focus on the production of uniforms for power structures and workwear. They receive state orders and have guaranteed selling. But you need to go to the release of civilian clothes and go with the «needles» of government orders. According to our observations, there are enterprises in the country capable of providing the population with consumer goods, ranging from underwear to business and outerwear, but these enterprises need government support .
Government support should include not only short-term intervention and long-term state support for light industry enterprises. Industrial policy on short-term intervention should be aimed at providing «emergency assistance» in case of a possible bankruptcy of enterprises within the industry, including taking measures to reduce the load and improve the loan conditions for enterprises of light industry. Long-term support should focus on stimulating accented the gradual strengthening of the positions of light industry enterprises and the introduction of regulation of irrational phenomena in the industry structure.
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