The main tendency of changing the priority goals of higher education is to put the tasks of personal development of the student based on his internal potential to the fore. The model of the educational process in the future higher school is focused on the transition from education as the transfer of knowledge to a learner to productive education, which allows the learner to “master strategies and master the system of educational activity, design personal knowledge and interact with other subjects of the educational process and with the outside world as an active, autonomous, creative person” .
Teaching individual reading to students of a pedagogical university is based on a student-centered approach based on the learning strategies of students. The essence of the personality-oriented approach is to focus on the personality of the student, on his interests, needs and opportunities, as well as on the ways of learning that correspond to his individual characteristics. This approach is characterized by the reorientation of the whole learning process from the personality of the teacher and the methods of teaching to the personality of the student and the ways of learning.
Such an approach requires consideration of the characteristics of individual reading as a component of the curriculum, the organizational form of teaching reading, the type of reading, as well as the psycholinguistic and didactic problems of mastering individual reading in order to develop an adequate scientifically based method of teaching this type of reading.
The discipline "Individual Reading" is a component of a foreign language curriculum for pedagogical universities. The program of training foreign language teachers in a higher education institution consists of a series of courses on language practice (practical grammar, analytical, home reading, etc.), courses on the psychological-pedagogical cycle (courses in pedagogy, psychology, methodology), and also linguistic discipline (style, lexicology, etc.).
“Individual reading” as an academic discipline is not included in the schedule of studies. Teaching individual reading and reading control is carried out at the expense of hours allotted for independent work of students and the control of independent work of students. “Individual reading” as an academic discipline is significantly different from the discipline “Home reading”.
The purpose of learning to read and the level of individual reading of students studying English as a second specialty is determined by the requirements of the Program. The goal of learning to read is the ability to silently read an unfamiliar original text without help, at the right pace, with the degree of understanding necessary in each particular case.
Practicing individual reading in practice often comes down to recommending a book for reading (often a single book for an entire group of students) and a subsequent discussion in the group of the material read at home. Often, students do not know how to work with a book, the installation classes are not conducted, there is no set of exercises for working with material for individual reading.
Students can be recommended lists of books for individual reading, from which they choose a book, read independently and report on what they read at individual consultations. As a form of control, as a rule, reading, translation of a passage, a brief retelling of what has been read is offered.
At the same time, the formation of skills in individual reading, the orientation of the educational process to the active independent work of students, the consideration of educational strategies of students in extracurricular activities constitute an additional reserve of the intensification of the process of learning a foreign language.
By the nature of management, individual reading is an independent activity that does not allow rigid guidance from the teacher, which implies free choice on the part of the trainees, and is flexibly guided by the teacher. By the nature of the activity, this is the cognitive activity of the “creative level of activity” , in which students show a desire to apply knowledge and ways of working in a new situation. At the place and time of holding it is an after-school activity. According to the place in the educational process it is an autonomous type of activity indirectly related to the educational process.
Individual reading is a complex type of reading, which implies the possession of certain skills and abilities to extract information from the written text, and a special approach to the formation of skills and skills in reading (student-centered), and a special form of training (with based on various educational strategies), as well as a certain content of training and technology of training, which includes a set of training exercises and tasks, and teaching techniques and methods of control.
The purpose of teaching individual reading is to teach students to extract information from the text, i.e. master the skills of communicative reading. When describing communicative types of reading, there are no clear boundaries between them, there is no clear unified basis for their classification, although attempts are made to determine the types of reading in terms of the motives, goals and needs of the trainees.
Individual reading as a type of reading in modern domestic and foreign methodical literature is characterized as follows; extracurricular, home reading (home reading), extensive (extensive), personalized (personalized), independent (independent reading) . It seems necessary to distinguish three groups of characteristics of individual reading:
− on the conditions of reading (out-of-class, home reading - home reading) and its place in the curriculum (additional rеading additional reаding);
− by the amount of material being read and the nature of the reading process (synthetic, extеnsive reading - global, extensive rеading);
− by the role of the student in the learning process, when each student reads the selected individual text (work) and uses learning strategies of reading (individual/ individualized reading).
The most widespread method of teaching reading was called "individual reading." This is due to the fact that it is one of the essential features of such a reading. The student chooses the text independently according to his interests and the level of language training; when reading the text, he uses individual, typical reading strategies for him.
Given the different classifications of types of reading, we give the characteristics of individual reading as a type of reading.
Individual reading can be described as non-translational, communicative reading; flexible reading about yourself (fluent or at a slow pace), suggesting an independent choice by the student of the degree of penetration into the readable. This is a mature reading, for which synthesis processes are characteristic. From the point of view of organization, this type of reading can be considered an independent extracurricular additional reading; at the same time, individualization, on the one hand, is realized in the organization of the learning process (each student reads his individual text or work), on the other hand, in the orientation of the teaching method on the student's personality, using his training strategies in reading.
Since individual reading is a mature reading, which is communicative in nature and implies the ability to read and comprehend the content of texts with different depths and precise penetration into the readings in order to meet their communicative needs and depending on the tasks of reading, we highlight The following types of communicative reading in the framework of individual reading:
− reading with full understanding of the text;
− reading with an understanding of the main content (with a general scope of content);
− reading with selective extraction of the necessary or interesting information (browsing search).
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