The idea of relation between culture and language dates back to the 18th century, but focused study of this problem began only at the end of the last century. These studies were more declarative and up to early 70-ies of any Russian or foreign linguistics was not sufficiently deep and extensive research on the topic.
However, over the last two decades has greatly increased the number of works, demonstrates the interest and desire to linguists to study linguistic phenomena in a wide extra linguistic context. In addition, even if recently acknowledged that appeal to extra linguistic factors indicates a failure or «weakness» of the linguist – researcher now, the need to learn a language in it is the actual functioning in various spheres of human activity became generally accepted.
The first attempts to solve the problem of the relationship of language and culture are reflected in the writings of V. Gumboldt.
Language – is a means of communication between individuals, and culture – a certain level of development of society. Language culture stores, transmits it from generation to generation. And based on this idea there was such a science as cultural linguistics.
Linguistics – an independent branch of linguistics, which was formed in the 90-ies of XXI century, to study the relationship of language and culture.
A new branch of knowledge - cultural linguistics – creates its own conceptual and terminological apparatus, which combines its linguistic and cultural origins.
According to Passov: «culture through language and language through culture, that is, the understanding of culture as a means of communication and culture of language learning as a means of communication». This is the attitude of another language and native language to culture. In this dialogue, the recognition of another culture is carried out only through our culture.
The emergence of the distance between their culture knowledge and experience acquired from their native language and foreign language, form the personality of the culture of the «third». That is, during communication, a person misses and compares his main culture, forms a «third» culture, which is a combination of two cultures (his and another culture). Therefore, to communicate is not enough to know that only foreign language is different from the native language. In addition, a teacher who studies a foreign language should be universal. Because, causing interest in students in a different language - is the teacher. He is the bearer of culture between the mother tongue and foreign language. Most importantly, he must be a professional who speaks his native language. Working with such a teacher, students can communicate with representatives of other countries at the basic level, investing the culture of the two States.
As already mentioned above, during communication people perceive each other by referring to a certain group. This can be called cultural self-determination. That is, a person finds his place in the cultural environment and takes himself to a certain group. The formation of cultural self-expression of a person through a foreign language can be considered in three components:
As is known, the problem of the relationship of language and culture is considered long and developed in our country in different directions.
The first attempt to solve this problem is reflected in the V. Gumboldt’s works:
1) Material and spiritual culture embodied in the language;
2) Every nationality culture, its national character is expressed in the language through a specific vision of the world; inherent language-specific every nation inner form;
3) The inner form of language – the expression “national spirit”, its culture;
4) Language is a link between man and the world around him.
Even owning one and the same language, people cannot always correctly understand each other, and the reason it is often discrepancy cultures.
Human speech consists of words. Words need to be able to communicate, without communication. Words connect people, words unit people through communication. Without communication there is no society, no society no person social, no cultural man, Homo sapiens. All of the words are added to the language.
«Language – the set of all words of the people and the right combination thereof, for transfer their thoughts».
«Language – any system of signs, suitable to serve means of communication between individuals».
«Language – spontaneously arose in human society and developing discrete system sound marks, for the purpose of serving communication and the ability to express the totality of knowledge and understanding man of the world».
«Language – historically established system of sound, vocabulary and grammatical means, objectifying the work of thinking and being instrument of communication, exchange of ideas and mutual understanding of people in society».
«Language – a system of communication consisting of a set of small parts and a set of rules which decide the ways in which parts can be combined to produce messages that have meaning. Human language consists of words that are usually spoken or written».
Ethnocentrism, culture of self-expression, and cultural dialogue reflect the dynamics and dynamics of development in teaching the native language and culture of foreign language countries. A cultural guide can be a source of learning a foreign language at every stage.
Now it is worth noting each level separately.
The first level of students ' perception of the culture of a foreign language:
Ethnocentrism is the initial moment in the study of the culture of a foreign language state. In this context, the first views of students abroad are formed. Here the student experiences a different culture through his own culture. Initially, «good», «bad» mean the first views on a foreign language.
A guide to culture
First, students experience in foreign culture. Therefore, familiarity with the diversity of culture of the foreign language is the task of a foreign language. It is also found in the cultural self-determination in the dialogue. For example, to acquaint primary school students with a variety of greetings (Hey, what's up, dude?/Hi, how are you?/Hello, how are you doing, sir?) implementation of the methodical principle of the instruction on culture. With these 3 sentences, students learn how to apply them correctly in different social situations.
Indicates the ratio of the native language to the foreign language. To achieve great results, it is necessary to study the native language, both foreign and native. When studying a foreign language and culture, pay attention to three components: a) the culture of the native language b)culture as a theoretical constructor C) the culture of the country of the foreign language being studied.
(A) the culture of the country. When students work with materials on the culture of the native language, pay attention to:
* pay attention to the culture of the native language (land, cities, villages, regions, etc.); b.)
* see and understand the difficulties of cultures in the region / space.
* find your place in the student's cultural environment and relate yourself to a specific group (city, district, village).
* awareness of the culture of the native language (Kazakh people – hospitable people);
* explain the origin of such characteristics and the correct application of intercultural relations.
B) culture as a theoretical designer, there is a driving force for students after the task of culture. They may ask:
What is culture? What types of culture exist? What features have a culture? etc.
C) culture of the country studying a foreign language, knowledge of the culture of the country studying a foreign language. To teach students to collect the correct, necessary materials about the culture of the country of the studied foreign language; to focus on the division of the material by types of culture on the collected material, to teach to summarize the data on one level. At the age of learning a foreign language, students can collect items of elite culture (art, music, theater, literature, history) and social culture (food, fashion, social norms and laws).
The second level of students’ perception of the culture of a foreign language: the method of self-expression.
Students begin to understand that the system of norms and concepts, United on the basis of people, refers to each culture. Therefore, the student tries to understand the culture of a foreign language through the culture of their country, comparing it with the culture of each country. In addition, he tries to find his place in the environment. Intercultural relations are not just the intervention of two States, he begins to understand that both people are in the same space, but they are representatives of different cultures. "What role can I play in this situation?"we need to learn how to put different questions that they should be aware of.
The third level of students' perception of a foreign language of the state: the subject of cultural dialogue.
It activates the thinking and understanding of students. Now students can put themselves in the place of others, Express their views, thoughts in intercultural communication, predict various intercultural problems, try to speak on behalf of the culture of their country, etc.
To sum up, every culture cannot live without relationships with other cultures. A language that continues the existence of culture. In the subject of a foreign language reading different texts, different topics, students get acquainted with the history, art, culture, culture of the country of the language. The relationship between language and culture begins with the deepening of students' knowledge, language learning, skills. They will become Fox culture "the third." In accordance with article 37 of the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan of January 23, 2001 «On local government and self-government in the Republic of Kazakhstan», article 32 of the Budget code of the Republic of Kazakhstan of December 4, 2008, orders of the Minister of Finance of the Republic of Kazakhstan of may 19, 2010 № 233 «on approval of the rules of preparation and submission of the budget application» Students begin to understand the social significance of the language in the learning process.
The foreign language teacher improves the linguistic Outlook of the student, the culture of discussion.
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