In accordance with the practical purpose of teaching foreign languages, teacher must build the teaching process in such a way that, as a result of training, that pupils will develop communicative competence. Taking into account the inextricable link between language and culture, it can be noted that learning only language structures will be incomplete. Therefore, training materials should be carefully selected and presented in such a way as to simultaneously reflect linguistic and non-linguistic realities. From this point of view, video is a unique learning tool.
Video material is a perceptual mnemonic mental activity, as in the process of watching a video, visual-auditory perception is performed, basic mental operations are performed (analysis, synthesis, deduction, induction and concretization) and assimilation of informative features, image formation, recognition as a result of comparison with the standard takes place stored in memory.
The understanding of speech by ear is inextricably linked with speaking, since these are two interrelated sides of oral speech. The listening and speaking phases are interspersed: the student listens to the message and prepares an answer to it in internal speech. Thus, watching videos helps students develop communication skills, helps increase vocabulary and forms sociocultural competence.
When working with video materials, all four types of communication activities can be involved: listening, speaking, reading and writing, which allows us to speak about the effectiveness of their use in the lesson. Consequently, video has many advantages over other visual learning tools. On the other hand, we understand that the use of video materials in the classroom is a very difficult and time-consuming task: from the point of view of working methods and from a technical point of view.
Displaying video material in a foreign language class implies that “the video used must be appropriate to the level of students' knowledge; the observation must be organized in such a way that all students can clearly see the video shown; it is necessary to clearly identify the main, essential; elaborate in detail the explanations given during the video demonstration; the demonstrated video should be coordinated with the studied educational material, correspond to the studied subject ” .
- Thus, the following are technical recommendations:
• the image and sound should be clear and of high quality;
• Students should be well aware of the video being shown.
- Methodical recommendations include the fact that:
• the video used must be appropriate for the student’s level of knowledge;
• video material must be presented in stages;
• the video must be divided into episodes having finished
• plot, lasting no more than 10–15 minutes;
• the language structures used in the video should
• comply with the requirements and standards of the literary language;
• new words, phrases, idioms and idioms should be used in moderation .
At the lessons of a foreign language it is possible to show various video materials: cartoons, feature films and documentaries, interviews, fragments of news and TV shows, weather forecasts, commercials. The choice of video, as well as the process of developing a system of tasks for them, is very laborious, it takes a lot of time and requires a lot of effort from the teacher.
When working with video materials, we will distinguish three main stages: — pre — demonstration; — demonstration; — post — demonstration.
At the pre-demonstration stage, it is very important that the teacher turns students into active participants in the learning process. Thus, the goal of the stage is the motivation of students, the removal of possible difficulties in the perception of the text and the preparation for the successful implementation of subsequent tasks.
At this stage, the teacher gives a brief information about the film, without disclosing its full content, as this will lead to a decrease in the interest of students in the video.
At this stage, the teacher may resort to the use of word-clichés; provide students with a list of difficult words and expressions, without understanding of which it is impossible to comprehend the essence of the video. The use of such visual means as photographs, drawings, diagrams at the pre-demonstration stage to reveal the content of the film and productively familiarize students with the topic increases the effectiveness of the use of films in the classroom.
The teacher should also clarify to students that the pace of speech of native speakers in films is fast, there may be local accents, slang expressions (reduced spoken vocabulary) and truncated grammatical structures.
The second stage is a demonstration stage (or a film), the purpose of this stage is the formation of communicative competence, the development of communicative competence, the development of oral speaking (speaking, listening) skills, the development of students' socio-cultural competence.
The teacher to improve the effectiveness of this stage, the teacher may ask students:
• carry out information retrieval: information search exercises, text recovery (while browsing fill in gaps in the text), lexical and grammatical exercises, assignments to indicate correct and incorrect statements; the choice of one correct variant from several offered;
• make a schematic abstract of the film, which will be needed to perform tasks at the post-demonstration stage;
• work with a separate episode (part of the film). The ability to split the film into episodes helps to realize a detailed understanding of the plot: exercises to select the title of the episode, forecast the further course of events, discussion, retelling of a part of the video material and its decoding;
• interpret the semantic content of the episode, taking into account the intonation, facial expressions, gestures of the characters.
The third stage is practical work with the extracted information from the video material. The purpose of this stage is the virtual creation of the initial situation, indicated in the video, for the further development of oral and written skills. It is at this stage that the assignments are checked, as well as the understanding of the main content and the language and speech means used in the film. The teacher can organize a lesson in the form of a discussion so that all students take part in the created communication situation. Since the goal of this stage is to form and develop the skills of communicative competence, the exercises and tasks for the third stage are also designed to achieve this goal. For example, exercises aimed at developing oral speech skills: a description of the scene, a description of the appearance of the main characters, a description of their character traits, an analysis of what is happening on the screen; role-playing game, based on the plot or the situation of the video .
Let's highlight the fourth stage of working with video materials — the creative stage. At the creative stage, students can discuss reviews, articles from newspapers and magazines on the subject of the film. The teacher can offer students to perform a written work on the subject of the film: retelling the film / episode, making a dialogue, writing a letter to a friend and research work, in search of new data on the subject of the film .
Taking into account all factors, it can be said that video materials can act as a goal of teaching listening and can be an effective means of teaching vocabulary, grammar, as well as all types of speech activity. Demonstration of videos can significantly improve the effectiveness of the learning process.
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