“Tristan and Isolda” is one of the most important medieval French poems of the 12th century, which is a favorite of the heroes of love. The origin of this composition begins with the Irish land and Celtic Scotland. The names of many heroes in the poem and the names of the earth and water can be a historical argument: Lonoyas and Moorea forests are located in Scotland. The walls of the Tintagel (Tintajel) palace have survived to this day on the coast of the present Cornwall. In the ninth century, there was the king whose name was Mark. In addition, the old Celtic poems are often named after Tristan.
At that time, the poets were transforming and developing the songs, psalms in the lands of Wales and Cornwall. And in the 1140's of the twelfth century, the Anglo-Norman story tellers formed the original in French. Over the centuries, many poets-writers have their own choices in this original line. The first two versions of the poem that have survived to date have been formed. They were written by French poets Berul (around 1180) and Thomas (1170) .
The Berul variant is based on folklore literature, which corresponds to the original version. However, this version was rejected by medieval cultural values of the time, and some subjects and images were preserved and they were preserved as a poem.
In the version that Thomas wrote, the poet cares about the inner world of the characters. Although the content and the idea are graceful with the Berul version, there is a difference in the writing style and plot of the story. Many researchers and translators work on the version of Thomas . Based on the Thomas version, German poet Gottfried Strasbourg wrote in 1210 the famous “Tristan and Isolda” (“Tristan und Isold’). In 1485, the English literary writer T. Malory wrote in the prose style «The Fyrst and Secunde Bake of Syr Trystrams de Lyones». The peculiarity of T.Malory is that it removes the tragedy at the end of the verse and gives Tristan and Isolda a happy life. A few centuries later, in 1859, the German composer Richard Wagner wrote the opera “Tristan and Isolda” and revived the pearl. In 1900, French writer J. Beeder (1864–1938) tried to write the ancient version of the poem in modern French, preserving all the medieval values. The book “Poem of Tristan and Isolda” was so successful that many translators such as A. A. Veselovskii, D. V. Borisov, Y. Stefanova, A. D. Mikhailov translated into Russian. Also it was translated into Spanish, Italian, Czech, Belorussian.
The poem “Kozy Korpesh-Bayan Sulu” is one of the most beautiful poems ever since the 13th-14th centuries. There are many opinions on the age in the history of the poem. Musatai Akynzhanov (1905–1986), a native of Kazakhstan, Doctor of Historical Sciences, wrote the story for the first time among today's Kazakh scientists: “In many versions of our oral literature, one of them is written in the earlier version of Kozy Korpesh-Bayan Sulu No name for “khan”. However, although he did not prove to be a complete khan, it did not prove that there was no deficiency. It only represents the truth of the times. The Karluk Union is not a whole khanate. Instead of the whole khanate, three hundred are ruled by dances from every tribe. The poem “Kozy Korpesh — Bayan Sulu” is a poem created by the Karluk Union in the 9th and 10th centuries. There are several things to say. First, in the toponymic names, the location of the Kozy Korpesh and Bayan mazar is exactly the same. But the language coincides with 9–10 centuries. Therefore, the monument “Kozy Korpesh-Bayan Sulu” left one of the monuments of the Karluk Union for the future — the first sign of the Kazakh language as the native language” .
Well-known ethnographer-historian, academician Alkei Margulan, during a comprehensive study of the cemetery of two lovers in Ayaguz, brings the age of creation to 15 centuries.
One of the marks that distinguishes the time of appearing of the poem “Kozy Korpesh — Bayan Sulu” is its symbolic dome. This dome is a sign that was built early in the era of Islam, either in the time of Hun, or in the Turkic Khanate. Because of the fact that the stone house, the tower was a special place in the Turkish kaganat. The Kipchaks and the Oguzes call it the wheels, the stone domes on the top of the roof, the roofs, the stones, the stone house. Those words continued with that tradition and preserved their descendants. The stone-built houses are like a yurta full of summer, an underwater circle, a high hill on the roof, a dome and architecture .
However, in 2002 the 1500-year history of the Kozy Korpesh-Bayan Sulu folklore poetry at the UNESCO level was noted.
There are 16 versions of the poem “Kozy Korpesh-Bayan Sulu” . Poets such as Bekbau, Shuzhe, Zhanak, Sybanbai and Beysembay sang the poetry in their own way. The most comprehensive of these is the version of Zhanak.The Shozhe version differs by its short cut. In Beysembay-Zhyrau, the tragic main character of the poem is not taken into account, where two young people get into happiness. In this version, the image of Karabay is full depicted.
The Russian scientist G.Sablyukov wrote down the poem from Kokpetti poet in the Semipalatinsk region for the first time in 1830 and recorded it on the paper in 1834. A.Derbisalin, a Kokshetau-based officer who wrote the poems of the People's poetry. And for the first time in Kazakh the poem was published by a Russian academician V.Radlov in 1870. This year, the scientist also published a version of the poem translated into German. In the meantime, this scientist also introduced the version of the poem translated into Uyghur in 1886. One of the greatest collectors of this great work is Sh.Ualikhanov, a great Kazakh scientist of the 19th century. He recorded one of the variants for the first time, at the age of 16, under the supervision of his father, Shyngys in 1851 . He also wrote down another variant of the poem from Zhanak in 1862, from Shozhe in 1864. Shokan gave his writings to his Russian friends and made them think about their propaganda.
The great Abai was also impressed by the sincerity and genuine of the poem, and ordered one of his poet Beisenbai Zhunusbekuly to transform, to change some motifs Zhanak's version. The poet's task has been fulfilled. In Beisenbai’s version Kozy stays alive, has a son with Bayan. In 1856, Mr. Putintsev translated the content of the poem into Russian. Academician M.Auezov published the version of the poem in Almaty in 1936, in Soviet times. The poem «Kozy Korpesh — Bayan sulu» was last published in 2002 in Astana. Malik Gabdullin, Iskak Dyusenbayev, Auelbek Konyratbaev and others scientists investigated the poem by comparing all variants. The poem has Turkic versions. For example, in Bashkirs — “Kuzy Kurpesh menen Maiyan sylu”, in Tatars — “Kozy Korpesh”, in Altai — “Kozy Erkesh”.
Both poems are valuable heritage we have inherited from the past.
Finally, there are similarities within the context of two non-fraternal countries, but the origin of the titles “Tristan and Isolda” and “Kozy Korpesh — Bayan sulu” are similar to historical data, and there are some differences that are significant.
- http://kk.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tristan and Isolde
- All masterpieces of world literature in summary. Plots and characters. Foreign literature of ancient times, the Middle Ages and the Renaissance: Encyclopedic edition. / Ed. and comp. V. I. Novikov — M.: Olimp; ACT Publishing LLC, 1997
- 3. M.Aknjanov. «About Kazakh surname», Almaty, 1956, Kazakh State Fiction Literature, pp. 153–154
- A. Margulan. «Ancient Songs, Legends», 1985, p. 284.
- S. A. Kaskabasov. «Kozy Korpesh — Bayan Sulu» and Turkic epic tradition. «Epic of Kozy Korpesh — Bayan Sulu» and the Turkic world «proceedings of the international scientific and theoretical conference dedicated to the 1500th anniversary of the novel «Kozy Korpesh — Bayan Sulu» / p.11 / Almaty «Interprint» 2003.
- Sh.Ualikhanov. Compositions T. I / 200. 1961.