In light of the changes taking place in Uzbekistan, the question arises of the need to form a civil society, which is not only a certain structure, but also a completely new quality of life. However, without the formation of civic culture, which is a spiritual substrate of civil society and ensures its existence, the task of creating a civil society cannot be accomplished. The relevance of studying civic culture is closely related to the needs of awareness of its importance for the sphere of life-practical, socio-cultural being of a person. To identify the potential of the media as a factor in the formation of civic culture, it is necessary to clarify the issue of the functions of the media in modern society. Analysis of the literature shows that there are a large number of points of view on this matter, however, in fact, they differ little. Thus, according to the classification of B.Grushin, the media perform the following functions: informing, educating, organizing behavior, relieving tension, communication . There is a more strengthened classification: the first function genetically inherent in the media is information, the second function is the socialization of the individual, the third is democratic. The media, in the opinion of the authors of this classification, is the only way civil society can influence the behavior of the authorities, since no meetings and strikes can be compared with the media . According to another, more detailed media classification, they perform an informational function, an educational function, a socialization function, a critique function, a control function, an articulation and integration function, an operational function. All these functions are united by the mobilization function or directly or indirectly contribute to its implementation.
In most democratic countries, the media is a private enterprise, a branch of the economy in which hundreds of thousands of people are involved. It is believed that as economic independence is gained, the media becomes truly free from control by the state, major corporations, advertisers; they gain freedom and come as close as possible to the ideal, the so-called «freedom of the media, freedom of the press». This freedom is necessary to fulfill the primary function of the media: to inform everyone about everything, thus allowing citizens to make their own choices, to gain their own position and to further realize it, participating in the socio-political life of the state. The press not only conveys information to readers, but also changes, shapes their views and positions: «Freedom of typography», – wrote Alexis de Tocqueville, -«has an impact not only on political opinions, but even on all people's convictions. It changes not only laws, but also mores» . The implementation of the controlling function is possible with media independence from both a political and an economic point of view. Criticism and control are two functions, closely interrelated, necessary for the normal implementation of the subject-subject relations between the state, its representatives and civil society. In such vertical relationships, the position of the actor can be shaped and corrected. In addition to criticism of individual phenomena, impartial coverage of events by the media can demonstrate models of genuinely civil behavior, encourage social activism, and offer models of civil interaction. The media have ample opportunities to support socially significant public initiatives, to broadcast and promote civic values and ideals.
And one more important function from the point of view of civil culture formation is the integration function. «In democratic countries it is often the case», – writes A. de Tocqueville, – «that a large number of people who feel a desire or need to unite cannot do this because they all do not see one another. And suddenly there is a newspaper, publishing those thoughts or feelings that are simultaneously, but singly, all covered. They are all immediately sent to this light, and, like stray lights, they finally meet and unite. The newspaper, having brought them together, remains a necessary means of maintaining their union» [3, p.208]. Since civic culture is objectified in the existence of associations, that is, civil institutions, and the ability to collectively defend associative interests, the integration function inherent in the media should undoubtedly stimulate the formation of civic culture.
The paradox and the essence of the problem of non-fulfillment by the media of their primary functions, which are at the same time the functions of the formation of civic culture, is that the media operate simultaneously in the social and economic sphere. In countries such as the United States, Italy, Poland and the United Kingdom, according to the observations of the well-known British political analyst John Keen, the main topic of public debate about the future outlines of the media is the problem of «press freedom», formed in a private market . Rupert Murdoch, an ideologue of market liberalism, argues that the main condition for the freedom of the press, radio and television is market competition, which is understood as freedom from government interference. Famous scientist Colin Sparks, who studied in detail the work of the market press in a situation where market income is an important element in newspaper finance, claims that the self-provided market will stratify information support and will not be able to provide all citizens with information of equally high quality and provide equally wide range opinions. K. Sparks associates this with some features of the press market. There is a direct press market where the reader pays money directly for the physical convenience of the newspaper. If it were a single market, then the tendency of all newspapers would be to try to reach the widest possible audience. Revenue would be directly related to the size of the circulation.
It seems that domestic science and the media should also combine their efforts; but without a centralized state policy on the formation of civic culture, the effectiveness of the combined efforts will be less tangible. The implementation of state policies aimed at creating the conditions for the existence of a truly democratic press — a fast and achievable goal — mechanisms for smoothing market aberrations in the functioning of a democratic free press exist. However, steps in this direction will help to achieve disproportionately large goals: the fulfillment by the media of its primary functions will ensure the systematic formation of elements of civic culture, which, in turn, creates the basis for the existence of civil society in Uzbekistan.
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