The article reveals the current state of Syganak settlement in Kyzylorda region. In addition, the issues of preservation of archaeological monuments in the region, and museumification will be considered.
Keywords: Kyzylorda oblast, town Syganak, cultural heritage, museumification, archaeological monuments.
One of the ways of long and high preservation of archaeological monuments is museumification, that is, the transformation of archaeological cities into an open-air Museum. One of the complex problems is the museumification of archaeological monuments. The restoration of the ancient city-settlement and the formation of an open exhibition is one of the priority branches of modern Museum business.
The term preservation was first used in 1920 in the works of academician Schmidt, will enter into the scientific language, when the first Museum-preserve of Russian specialists at the end of 1950. In the 1960s and 70s the problem of preservation has become one of the major challenges facing specialists in the preservation and restoration of monuments of history and culture .
Archaeological sites such as the settlement, settlement, necropolis, irrigation system, craft complexes can be turned into an open-air Museum in the places where they were engaged at that time, or in one place.
And their museumification requires the following stages: research, excavation, conservation, restoration, method of gardening, guiding reference and exposition interpretation, marking and fencing of the protected area [2, p.41–45].
After independence, our country began to address the issues of study and protection of monuments, as well as many other pressing problems. President of The Republic of Kazakhstan N. Nazarbayev B. in accordance with the decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N. Ah. Nazarbayev was declared the «Year of national unity and national history» in 1998, the year 1999-the year of unity and continuity of generations, and in 2004-the year of «cultural heritage» special attention was paid to the history of our people.
These programs were once good deeds. The program «Madeni Mura» revealed many innovations and included new pages in the history of our country. Syganak is one of the oldest cities where comprehensive research is carried out, which began within the framework of this program. The main purpose of this study is to transform the results of the study into an open-air Museum.
In the region of historical and cultural monuments, including Syganak city occupy a special place. In turn, kipchakov (XI-XII centuries)F), then AK-Orda (XIII-XIV centuries)d) Syganak city, one of the famous cities that became the capital of the Kazakh khanate (XV century). It is included in the preliminary list of world heritage of national importance, as well as in the collection of historical and cultural monuments of the Republic of Kazakhstan in Kyzylorda region [3, p. 226–227]. In the framework of the program «Bolashakka Badar: Rouhani Jair» in Kyzylorda region the monument among the Holy objects of national significance.
The first data on Saganaki was written by the famous Arab geographer, scientist, al-Idrisi in the tenth century, which was the town of Sauran, Succint, Syganak. And Syganak is a boiling environment of real trade».
Syganak city in the second half of XI century became the Central city of Kipchaks in connection with their arrival on raw. According to written sources, in connection with the arrival of Kipchaks in the region, oghuzs are moving to the South-West. In the middle and lower reaches of the cheese is Kipchak khanate.Ibn Ruzbihan described Syganak as «the Paradise of the earth on the Northern side of the region» [4, p. 116].
In 1867, on the instructions of the Russian archaeological Commission, the researcher I. P. lerkh went to inspect the medieval cities of the Turkestan region. The scientist will tell you where the city is. In 1899, the head of the Turkestan regional Department V. A. Kallaur conducted a survey of the city, described its topography and put on paper the project of the mosque at 100 m, in the Eastern part of the city in front of the gate. In 1906, the famous Explorer of the city I. A. Castanier looks. In 1927, commissioned by the Institute of material culture at the Russian Academy of Sciences Yu Yakubovsky looks a little closely. He was photographed on the topographical side of the city with the image of buildings, where some of them are preserved. He wrote a great scientific article about the city.
In 1947, the head of UCAE S. A. Bernshtam visited the topographic project of the city, and in the 50s-the head of UCAE. I. P. Mr. Ageeva and G. I. P. Bacevici conducted archaeological exploration.
In 70 — e years of the XX century the city was visited by the head of the Otrar archeological expedition, UCAA K. Akishev and Baipakov K. topographic part of the city Syganak gives a definition of the second famous city after Otrar in the medieval cities.
Then in 2004 in the framework of the program «Madeni Mura» was created Syganak Archaeological expedition (SAE) at the International Kazakh-Turkish University.Khoja Ahmed Yasawi. the Head of S. Zholdasbayev. The studies are divided into three stages:
As a result of a study conducted in 2003–2007, a four–room mausoleum of Rabat was opened in the North-Western part of the city, in the Eastern part of the room and madrasah of the mosque.
In 2008–2013 she carried out archaeological exploration to study the irrigation systems of Syganak and its economic zone. In addition, in the Central square of the city was openly building Tortoli and defined the design of the fortress city.
In 2014–2016, archaeological research was carried out on the opening of the Northern fortress gates of Syganak and the square at the entrance to the city and the Eastern gate of the city .
Work on the preservation and restoration of buildings identified in the course of archaeological excavations, started in 2010. These works are carried out by the research and design branch of the Republican state enterprise «kazrestavratsiya». In 2004–2005, a building was opened in which the upper part was not preserved. In the beginning, the researchers said that this building is the Central mosque-madrasah, and then the building was built in 1927.This khanaka mosque, described Jakubowski photography. In 2010, the khanak mosque was restored on the basis of a picture of Yakubovsky. In addition, the reconstruction of the Southern Gate of the city. In 2012, the architectural dimensions of the mosque, which date back to the XIV century, were acquired. It was determined in 2009. In the future, it is planned to carry out restoration work.
Restoration work is carried out under the guidance of chief architects L. S. Beysembaeva N. H. Imanzhanova. Reports on the results of the work are stored in the archive of the Research and design branch of the Republican state enterprise «Kazrestavratsiya» . In 2010, in accordance with the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan «On protection and use of objects of historical and cultural heritage» № 1488-XII of 1992, the protection zone of Syganak city was determined. the project was made a research and design branch of the Republican state enterprise «kazrestavratsiya». Then, in 2013, it was approved by the maslikhat of Kyzylorda region. In addition, at the meeting of the scientific and methodological Council for the protection and use of historical and cultural heritage of Kyzylorda region under the leadership of the Governor of the region, an application was submitted to the regional Department of economy and budget planning to ensure the allocation of funds for the protection of the city of Syganak in 2018.
Academician, founder of the Museum-reserve «Tomsk Pisanitsa»in the Kemerovo region of Russia I. P. Martynov noted that in the museumification of the monument of archeology it occupies a large place in science and society.Including communications (road to the monument, light, water, etc.) b) availability, the degree of preservation of the monument, the presence of the nearest settlement and the influx of population.
Museumification of archaeological heritage allows mainly to develop the tourism industry, to transform archaeological sites into new facets and to use in modern society. Currently, the use of the archaeological monument explains that it can be used not only in research or excavations, but also for the development of education, culture and tourism [7, p. 84–88].
Syganak settlement occupies a special place in the Kazakh history. Therefore, it is always in the memory of the Kazakh people is a monument takes place in science, society. The location of the settlement along the highway of international importance Shymkent-Samara, the proximity of the village of Sunak ATA in 2 km to the North-West, the buildings identified during archaeological excavations carried out from 2003 to the present time in a complex, show that the city can become an open-air Museum or a complex Museum-reserve.
Museumification is a requirement of the time. Our country needs active, joint work of specialists-archaeologists, restorers.
The museumification of the city Syganak, of course, will be the basis for the story. This can become one of the most successful sectors of the economy, developing cultural and historical tourism in the country.
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