This article focuses on the use of visual visibility tools for the development of language skills. At the beginning of the article, the history of the use of visual clarity tools in foreign language lessons and the opinions of scientists on this issue are reviewed. Also, the article analyzes the function, main advantages and technology of using visual aids in the classroom.
Key words: visual clarity, drawing, authenticity, didactic purpose, vocabulary, word, role-playing game, text, educational material, vocabulary, stimulus, audio recording, text decoration, reading, writing, speaking, listening.
The problem of using visibility in foreign language lessons has been and remains relevant. Currently, when humanity seeks a society without borders, seeks to join the cultural heritage and spiritual values of the peoples of the world, knowledge of a foreign language as a powerful tool of intercultural communication, has become popular and prestigious. Previously, in the methodology of a foreign language, it was often asked whether images should be applied (as a visual clarity) in a foreign language class. Over the past 40 years, visual clarity has become very important in the methodology and didactics of teaching a foreign language, and images — pictures are one of the most basic elements of learning a foreign language. Visualizations carry an important function for the intensive transfer of knowledge and the absorption of material. Visual media visibility, often referred to as optical media, are such means that: «Reproduction of content is transmitted through printed written material and is perceived by the human eye, and then stored or processed in the brain» [1, p.120].
For example, visual means include: a picture, a board, a slide, a poster, a photo, etc. Visual media has two important functions: the function of presentation and management. In its presentation, the image conveys the foreign reality and authenticity to the audience; its cultural information value is accordingly important. In the same function, an image can provide for didactic purposes (instrumental function) by situational introduction of a text or exercise, or it can serve to semantise words or sentences. As controls, optical media are used very changeably in order to stimulate student expression in the linguistic-communicative phases of classes. Images are viewed as a means of communication, which is usually easier to understand than text. For this reason, they are popular with teachers as well as with foreign language students. Today, any text can be replaced by one or more images. Ҳ.Shimimov I. Yubub describe the functions of images in teaching foreign languages as follows: “Images have different functions. The most important of them are: informing, presenting, explaining, motivating, a means of helping to train the memory or decorating ” [2, p.217–225].
Informative function: pictures usually convey information faster than texts about a fact, they can also make the situation conscious and understandable. It can be assumed that all the pictures have an informative property, it depends only on the view from which they are viewed. Presentation function: This function is considered to be an easier understanding. We are talking about pictures that illustrate the content of the text and help students understand better and empathize with the situation. These pictures may also be accompanied by certain text statements that make them repeatable or more vivid. Explanation function: This function tries to explain with the help of pictures complex text sections, to concretize and bring them closer to the students. In this case, the accompanying picture is very important, because the text without a picture is very incomprehensible, unclear, and unclear. From another point of view, this feature can facilitate the learning process and the acquisition of vocabulary. This is a special form of using images that explains and identifies a word. The motivation function is one of the most important. Pictures motivate students, often pictures in foreign language classes are used to stimulate language expressions. Description of the picture, free oral comments on the picture, image comparisons, role-playing games, history and image descriptions are among the most common exercises in textbooks.
Function help tool for memory training. In a foreign language class, pictures can be used not only as a textbook, but also as a means to train memory. The words presented in combination with the picture, supports our memory and are remembered better and for a long time. This has been confirmed in methodological and psychological research. Scenery function. Small pictures that accompany text, a table or a dictionary, decorating pages in a textbook, or various cartoon characters with speech bubbles that comment on something in a textbook, point to something, convey an opinion, these types of images weaken the text and awaken motivation students, as well as their interest in educational material. The use of pictures in foreign language classes have their advantages. First of all they develop speaking. They serve the integration and semantization of vocabulary.
Other benefits also include [3, p.136]:
− Many students receive external stimuli mainly through the visual channel and can memorize pictures better than just listening or reading.
− Paintings are also seen as an incentive for speaking, writing, and as material for creative interaction.
− Textbooks on foreign language contain high-quality reproductions of pictures. It is these pictures that require carefully planned use and carefully reflected methodology.
− Pictures illustrate and explain the content of the lesson.
The use of pictures in learning a foreign language is becoming increasingly important. Pictures as part of the educational process is in irreplaceable connection. They offer a variety of exercises to consolidate and repeat vocabulary and acquire the ability to speak a foreign language. They served to support the semantization of the new dictionary and the automation of new language material. In the early 80s, images and their content came to the fore and found their place in communicative learning as graphic texts [4, p.368]. Further, the Czech teacher uses illustrations as necessary textbooks, because he relates the study of visual visibility to the principles of pedagogy. Images activate existing knowledge and encourage students to talk. Speech motivation is enhanced by visual perception. Pictures speak more than words. Images more open than multi-valued texts can have multiple interpretations and hence encourage people to speak. The use of images brings a greater effect when learning a foreign language [5, p.56].
The use of pictures in listening: Since successful communication in a foreign language is a good result of learning the language, sufficient time and freedom of application must be removed from the beginning for the hearing. Easily understood audio recordings, numerous exercises and a wide range of tasks are a prerequisite for desired success. The use of pictures in exercises for listening can affect the understanding of the text you have listened to. For this reason, great importance is attached to meaningful consistency between them.
Use of the image in basic skills: In addition to using the image as a decoration for the text, important functions are also attributed to it when developing the reading skill. The illustrations help to decipher the contextual and extralinguistic structure and reflect the main information in the text.
Using the image when writing basic skills:
It should not be overlooked that the paintings give impulses for the compilation of the text. With writing assignments with pictures, students face both some difficulties and relief. The use of the image is mainly the ability to speak: Pictures can serve as a reason for conversation. The following types of picture-based exercises are suggested for speaking development.
− Name text content
− Describe objects and their functions.
− Image Description
− Tell the story of the painting
− Picture for discussion
The use of pictures in training is not limited to tasks and exercises, accompanied by pictures, but also includes illustrated reference books. When using pictures in the classroom, image effects, such as motivation or drawing attention and interest, play an important role. Especially in children and beginners, they remove the language barrier, which is caused by a low and limited language level. Today, paintings are widely applicable in various textbooks, as well as in the concepts of auxiliary materials (sheets, grammatical posters, vocabulary). But they did not always satisfy the didactic needs of teachers. In the end, we can say that teachers do not need to be afraid to work with pictures in class.
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