This article was the first to recognize the independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the first of which was the fate of the Republic of Turkey after the First World War, which signed the Treaty of Eternal Friendship with the independent Uzbekistan, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's Reforms and the Formation of Modernized Statehood in Turkey, foreign policy agreements, contracts.
Key words: Turkish Grand National Assembly, Sevres Treaty, national liberation war, internal reform and modern Turkish society, foreign policy.
Эта статья первой признала независимость Республики Узбекистан, первой из которых стала судьба Турецкой Республики после Первой мировой войны, которая подписала Договор о вечной дружбе с независимым Узбекистаном Мустафой Кемалем Ататюрком. Реформы и формирование модернизированной государственности в Турции, внешнеполитические соглашения, контракты.
Ключевые слова: Великое национальное собрание Турции, Севрский договор, национально-освободительная война, внутренняя реформа и современное турецкое общество, внешняя политика.
Turkey emerged victorious and suffered greatly from the First World War. Over the past four years, 500,000 people have died and more than 800,000 have become disadvantaged. The Antanta Army invaded the capital of the country, Istanbul, in November 1918. At the end of 1919, elections to the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (TGNA) were held and the victors were victorious. The CPA decided to prevent foreign control over the territory of the country. In response, the British military dispersed the TGNA. The Turkish Grand National Assembly started its meeting in Ankara, the capital of Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk). On April 23, 1920, Mustafa Kemal elected Atatürk as head of state. The Sultanate of Two Authorities in Istanbul, and the Power of the Reformer in Ankara .
On August 10, 1920, the countries of the Antarctic Territory signed a contract with Turkey in Sevr, France. According to the agreement, until August 1, 1914, Turkey was reduced by three quarters. The territory of Turkey was limited to a small area in Europe, covering Anatolia and Istanbul. Istanbul was abandoned as the capital city. However, the victorious states had the right to revise this decision if Turkey began to abandon the terms of the Sevr Treaty. It has been noted that the Black Sea straits are open to trade and warships for all countries. They forced Turkey to withdraw its troops from the straits. In fact, these conditions have allowed Britain, France and Italy control over the straits. Turkey needed to take its fleet to Antanta. And yet, the Sevres Treaty gave the winning countries the right to control Turkey's finances and economy. It was decided that the Turkish army would not exceed 50 thousand. The Sevres Treaty has established a half-colonial regime of the Antanta states for Turkey. The agreement meant that the independent Turkey was actually abolished. On January 20, 1921, the reformers adopted the provisional Constitution of Turkey. The Kemalists were in severe conditions for Turkey — On 16 March 1921, they were able to sign a Friendship and Brotherhood agreement with the Soviet Russia. In the spring of 1921, Britain and Greece intervened in Turkey. The intervention faced severe opposition from the Turkish people. Finally, on August 26, 1922 the Turkish army was attacked. The National-Liberation War ended in October 1922. The Sultanate was abolished on 1 November. Turkey was proclaimed Republic on 29 October 1923. Kemal Atatürk was elected as the first president. Thus, the national-liberation revolution (also known as the revolutionary revolution) ended with the establishment of a sovereign Turkey state. On 24 July 1923, the Antarctic States recognized the Republic of Laos at the Lausanne Conference. The Khilafah was abolished in 1924.
The Turkish government has begun to pursue the policy of turning them into state property and placing public funds on the economy through the acquisition of foreign assets in the country.
National Bank was established. The placement of public funds in the economy has restricted foreign capital movements. The government also broadly supported private investment in national capitals. In October 1923, the capital was moved from Istanbul to Ankara. Religion is separated from the state. Vakf property was abolished. Education was purely secular. Religious schools closed. The world court has begun. The state territory has been re-established. On April 20, 1924 the first Constitution of the Republic was adopted. Worldwide laws have been introduced. The constitution and the laws permit the European lifestyle. The Arabic alphabet was replaced by Latin alphabet. In 1928, the Constitution abolished the rule of the Islamic State. Thus, Turkey became a secular state. In 1931, the reformers adopted a new program. At the same time, the party's logo was depicted as 6 winged, ie Turkey, a nation-wide, nationalistic, ethnical, secular, revolutionary state. Turkey. That is why France and the UK succeeded in obtaining the new government's debt during the Sultanate. In 1928, Turkey paid a total of 86.5 million pounds. Since then, the tradition of closer relations with the great powers has been increasing in Turkey's foreign policy. In particular, in 1926, a trade agreement with Italy was signed in 1930, with Germany . The United States is paying much attention to Turkey in foreign trade. In July 1932, he was accepted to the League of Nations. The Nazi Germany began to look at Turkey with great interest. This incident and the Italian attack on Ethiopia forced the UK to change its attitude towards Turkey. In 1935, the two sides agreed to cooperate with the UK in the event of an English-Italian conflict. In return, and thanks to the Soviet Union's support, Turkey succeeded in lifting international control over the Black Sea Strait (Bosfor and Dardanell). According to the Montryo agreement in July 1936, the control of the straits was again transferred to Turkey. Great Britain has begun to sell large quantities of military equipment and weapons to prevent the escalation of German influence. Turkey was neutral in the years of World War II, but this did not prevent him from concluding an agreement on friendship with Germany on 18 June 1941. The defeat of the German army on the threshold of Stalingrad on February 2, 1943 affected the future policy of Turkey. In August 1944, Turkey closed its diplomatic relations with Germany. At the same time, he began to approach the United States, the United Kingdom, and France. This raid led to a war on Germany in February 1945. However, Turkey did not take part in the war.
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