Power training of school students on the basis of accounting the features of their body and biological maturity | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Рубрика: Физическая культура и спорт

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №9 (247) март 2019 г.

Дата публикации: 06.03.2019

Статья просмотрена: 7 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Пулатова, М. Ж. Power training of school students on the basis of accounting the features of their body and biological maturity / М. Ж. Пулатова, Д. Б. Бахтиёров. — Текст : непосредственный // Молодой ученый. — 2019. — № 9 (247). — С. 214-217. — URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/247/56978/ (дата обращения: 05.07.2020).



The program on physical culture pays great attention to the development of motor skills of students. In each of its sections, dedicated to the formation and improvement of motor skills, the material for the development of motor skills is provided. Teachers of physical culture need to be guided by this material and, based on the conditions of the school, devote a certain amount of time (6–12 min) for each lesson to the development of the motor skills of students.

Key words: strength training, biological maturity, accelerated type.

Relevance. According to L. S. Dvorkina, S. V. Novakovsky, S. V. Stepanova (2003), strength training in a comprehensive school is rightly regarded as a specialized process aimed at improving the applied physical capabilities of students and improving their health. At the same time, the analysis of the content of scientific and methodological literature, as well as programs for the physical education of young students, made it possible to establish that even the possibility of using limited means of strength training in practice is not adequately implemented [B. N. Minaev, B. M. Shiyan, 1989; L. S. Dvorkin, S. V. Stepanov, 2001; V. S. Kuznetsov, G. A. Koloditsky, 2003].

Unfortunately, the use of burdens in the curriculum for students of grades 5–7 is not provided, there is no choice of effective means of strength training of adolescent students, there is practically no differentiated approach, the issue of the place of strength training of students in the process of physical education is not resolved. Even at the theoretical level, the problem of the relationship of strength abilities with other physical qualities has not yet been resolved. Among scientists there are disagreements on the issue of dosing burdens in the strength training of schoolchildren of different ages, the definition of the necessary levels of physical development and physical fitness. It is not clear the question of the optimal values ​​of dosing of power load in both dynamic and static exercises.

The purpose of the study is to develop and experimentally substantiate the technology of differentiating the strength training of students of middle school age based on their typological features.

Research objectives.

  1. To clarify the age dynamics of the indicators of strength abilities in boys aged 10–15 years, to identify the leading factors in the variability of indicators of strength abilities in this cohort of subjects.
  2. To determine the power capabilities of middle school students of various constitutional types and levels of maturation of the organism, examine the sensitive periods of development of this quality, identify the place of power abilities of adolescents of various typological groups in the structure of their physical fitness.
  3. Develop a technology for differentiating the strength training of schoolchildren based on taking into account the peculiarities of their physique and biological maturity.

To solve the tasks, the following research methods were used: theoretical analysis and generalization of literary sources; pedagogical observation; anthropometric measurements; assessment of constitutional types; method of determining puberty; control tests; biomedical research methods; pedagogical experiment; methods of mathematical statistics.

The results of the study. In the final qualifying work, indicators characterizing the age dynamics of physical development characteristics and strength training of boys aged 10–15 years were analyzed, the power abilities of schoolchildren of various constitutional types and biological maturity of the body were determined, the place of power abilities of adolescents of various typological groups in their physical fitness structure was studied.

A survey of 45 boys aged 10–15 years made it possible to identify age patterns of changes in the indicators of their morphofunctional development and physical fitness. The presented experimental data were analyzed by various statistical parameters (x,). Indicators of body length with age constantly increase significantly, the most significant increase was found at the age of 14 years (4.6 %, p <0.001) and 15 years (4.8 %, p <0.001).

Among all subjects aged 10–15, 55.9 % of boys classified as thoracic were detected. The number of persons with a digestive body type is 19.5 %, muscle — 14.4 %, asthenoid — 10.2 %. In the majority of boys (64.3 %), the passport age corresponds to the biological.

Levels of development of strength abilities of boys (normal type of development) at the age of 10–15 years (centile assessment method)

Age, years old

Indicator Development Levels

Low

Below middle

Average

Above middle

Tall

Wrist dynamometry, kg

10

4,2

8,2

10,1–14,1

16,1

20,6

11

5,1

9,8

12,1–16,6

18,9

23,7

12

9,0

13,6

15,9–20,5

22,8

27,4

13

12,3

16,8

19,0–23,5

25,8

30,2

14

136

19,5

22,5–28,4

33,4

37,3

15

16,3

23,0

26,4–33,1

36,5

43,2

Long jump from stand, cm

10

111,3

129,1

138,0–155,8

164,7

182,5

11

129,1

144,0

151,5–166,4

173,8

188,7

12

133,2

149,6

157,8–174,2

182,4

198,8

13

146,0

161,4

169,3–185,0

192,8

208,5

14

151,5

170,2

179,5–198,2

207,5

226,2

15

160,1

179,7

189,5–209,1

218,9

238,5

Pull-ups on the crossbar, number of times

10

0,3

1,7

2,8–4,9

6,0

8,2

11

0,4

2,2

3,2–5,8

7,0

9,4

12

0,5

2,4

3,3–6,3

7,7

10,7

13

0,4

2,6

3,6–7,4

9,3

13,2

14

0,3

3,0

5,0–9,1

11,1

15,2

15

0,4

4,0

6,1–10,4

12,5

16,7

Printed ball throwing, kg

10

2,17

2,89

3,25–3,97

4,33

5,05

11

2,55

3,31

3,69–4,45

4,83

5,59

12

2,80

3,59

3,99–4,79

5,20

6,02

13

3,18

4,04

4,47–5,33

5,76

6,62

14

3,55

4,47

4,93–5,85

6,31

7,23

15

4,16

5,11

5,59–6,54

7,01

7,96

Raising and lowering the torso for 1 min., Number of times

10

15,4

23,0

26,9–34,6

38,4

46,1

11

16,3

24,6

28,8–37,1

41,3

49,6

12

15,9

25,3

30,0–39,4

44,1

53,5

13

14,9

25,0

30,1–40,2

45,3

55,4

14

16,4

27,3

32,1–43,6

48,3

57,0

15

21,1

28,8

34,0–43,9

50,9

58,4

Vis on the crossbar, with

10

6,4

10,0

12,7–16,9

19,0

23,2

11

10,9

14,6

16,5–20,2

22,1

25,7

12

12,8

17,7

19,9–23,9

26,2

30,6

13

14,3

18,9

22,9–26,5

28,2

31,7

14

16,6

22,2

26,4–30,8

32,9

36,8

15

19,5

24,6

30,7–34,6

36,6

40,5

Developed evaluation criteria for the development of strength abilities in 10–15-year-olds. In our opinion, a more acceptable approach to the typological assessment of strength abilities is the orientation of students aged 10–11 years to constitutional features, and 12–15-year-old schoolchildren to levels of maturation of the body.

For students of thoracic physique type (age 10–11 years) and adolescents aged 12–15 years with a normal type of development, a generalized assessment of these indicators is appropriate. For students of the retarded type, it is advisable to shift the rating scale to the left by one gradation, for those engaged in the accelerated type, on the contrary, to the right by this amount. This approach will allow us to differentiate the scale of assessments of power abilities of students of middle school age.

The characteristics of strength preparedness of boys of the retarded type of development were divided into two groups. A similar pattern is manifested in adolescents of the accelerated type of development.

Findings. In boys of 14–15 years of normal type of development, indicators of strength preparedness manifested systemically. The stem part is highlighted: hand strength, dead force, pull-up indicators on the crossbar. These characteristics formed five branches of the results. Basically they are complex. Indicators of strength preparedness of boys of retarded type of development were divided into two groups. A total of 31 significant correlations were found between the characteristics of strength training. In boys with an accelerated type of development, indicators of strength readiness were distributed over two blocks.



Ключевые слова

strength training, biological maturity, accelerated type
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