The role of graphic organizers in improving the skill of argumentation | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

Библиографическое описание:

Садыкова А. Н., Жусанбаева А. М., Искакова А. М. The role of graphic organizers in improving the skill of argumentation // Молодой ученый. — 2019. — №8. — С. 181-185. — URL https://moluch.ru/archive/246/56786/ (дата обращения: 26.03.2019).



At present time, skills of the century have become globally important to be increased in educational framework. Unfortunately, one of these skills such as the skill of argumentation has been identified by teachers as a point which needs improvement in teaching practice, especially in demonstration of productive skills in Social Sciences. By implementing changes in education required by the time, Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools in Kazakhstan have taken into consideration the essence of these skills development through NIS programme, particularly by imbedding Global Perspectives course based on project- and concept-based learning. The given course teaches 11th grade learners to think critically of perspectives, reflect on surroundings, communicate with world and research it (NIS-Programme, 2018). Thus, skill of argumentation is an essential part of this process.

Argumentation skill’s importance has already been studied in all spheres of education and psychology. Many studies have identified that argumentation can help to promote “higher order thinking processes, assessment and content knowledge development” (Nuffield Foundation, 2019). As Acar (2008) identifies, natural ‘naïve’ and ‘intuitive’ reasoning skill is not enough in the current scientifically advanced technological progress. Therefore, many educational organizations have started to pay attention to the development of this phenomenon in their process. NIS teachers have also identified through observation that argumentation skill does not correspond to perfection and may lead to the low achievement of learners in productive skills like writing and speaking. Particularly, in Global Perspectives lessons, learners have faced with a lack of how to construct strong arguments in project work writing as well as in debates which are the final products of Global Perspective course. Thus, for teachers of Global Perspectives, it is important to focus on improvement of learners’ argumentation skill as it has a valuable educational significance in teaching and learning process of all fields of education as well as it is the core of Global Perspectives. In addition, there is a 3rd language acquisition for 11th grades students in Global Perspectives. So, Global Perspectives teachers use a range of varied tools considering the level of tasks from simple to difficult one according to Bloom’s taxonomy. In order to obtain more effective results in fostering argumentation skill and considering the time shortage during the teaching process, Global Perspectives teachers adapt the strategies of scaffolding, particularly the use of visual aids by imbedding the structures of argumentation there in different forms. Basically, graphic organizers have been identified as effective instruments in terms of argumentation boost of learners in both subject knowledge and skills for life-long learning in teaching practice. As Curriculum Development Institute (2001) citing Drapeau states, graphic organizers can improve learners’ critical thinking by promoting deconstruction, reconstruction, reflection and producing a strong, structured and valid communication in different ways. Therefore, graphic organizers as well as adapted ones such as PEEL, problem-solving, CRAAP, Toulmin model through Cornel notes, interview analysis, section organizers, etc. have been recognized as effective tools according to Global Perspectives teachers experience in improving skill of argumentation.

Graphic organizers for argumentation skill

PEEL graphic organizer

The one of the purpose of the course is to improve argumentative skills of students. Obviously, teachers have used the variety of the teaching activities in teaching instruction to contribute to learners’ abilities in designing argumentation. For instance, one of the useful tools in the first stages of teaching argumentation is graphic organizer with the PEEL method. The abbreviation of this method is referred to the following meaning: P- point, E- explanation, E- example of evidence, L- links

The evaluating PEEL method organizer can give the next results:

− PEEL can be used to improve in writing and speaking;

− through PEEL organizer students will be familiar with the basic structure of building their own arguments.

− looking for secondary sources to identify proofs for arguments;

− through PEEL students will be introduced with the first step of the quoting skills

− PEEL method is useful for all types of teaching strategy as group, pair and individual project work.

However, learners may struggle with the P-point stage where teacher asks them to create their arguments regarding the topics. In this stage learners think critically and suggest their own opinion. Some learners may get confused with working on unfamiliar topics because of the lack of vocabulary; hence it is important to provide with signal words or vocabulary. To achieve effective results from PEEL graphic organizer teacher should formulate the question or tasks with the familiar topic.

Problem— solving

The next type of graphic organizers which have been used during the GPPW lesson is problem — solving graphic organizers. This type of graphic organizers contributes to the development of students’ critical thinking and problem- solving skills which are required in the 21st century.

This type of graphic organizer has been useful during the discussion of global issues in the classroom. Problem — solving graphic organizer requires higher-order analytical and critical thinking skills according to Bloom’s taxonomy. During the first stages students determine the type of global issues, and then they identify the cause and consequences of the problem from three perspectives. Further, on the second stage students suggest their opinions based on argumentation structure about the effective ways to solve the problem. One of the features of this organizer is to embed students to work in a group which as a result improves the collaborative culture among students.

Toulmin model of argumentation through cornel notes

During the teaching practice the implementation of Toulmin model in Global Perspectives course has been successful to enhance skill of argumentation. Learners may start to think in depth and try to produce strong arguments by thoroughly considering the validity and objectivity of ideas. Even Dawson & Venville (2010), investigating the correlation of argumentation skill with scientific issues, state that Toulmin model of argumentation is an effective strategy of improving argumentation skill which enhances ‘’the quality of evidence’ and ‘make decisions about science issues that influence their lives’ and should be applied in all subjects of education. The given model has been implemented in Global Perspectives course with a slight adaptation due to the course specification; hence it has been applied through cornel notes template (Pauk, 2019), particularly in section where the summary needs to be presented.

Table 1

Cornell Notes

Subject

Main Ideas

Notes

Summary

Claim___________________________________________________________________

Ground__________________________________________________________________

Warrant__________________________________________________________________

Backing__________________________________________________________________

Rebuttal _______________________________________________________________

The given organizer can be used at early stage of argumentation skill improvement practice of project-based learning. The given tool helps students to learn materials and organize them by taking notes about main ideas and some details about the topic and present their own understanding by providing a summary in Toulmin model. In addition, student learns how to analyze, make connection with real life and admit alternative perspectives by providing rebuttal to the claim. Thus, this organizer triggers not only to develop proper arguments, but also challenges learners to conceptualize their ideas and thoughts by making connections with the reality as well as looking at them from different angles. This kind of visualization of ideas and thoughts also facilitate to the expansion of knowledge acquisition as what learner sees can be memorized in their brains faster than just reading.

CRAAP graphic organizer

One of the sections of the research is a “Context” section, which requires students to conduct a secondary research by studying and analyzing different articles about their research problem. As it is essential to choose articles that are reliable and credible, the CRAAP organizer (Institute of Education, 2019) has been created on the basis of CRAAP questions. This organizer helps students to analyze the sources for currency, relevance, authority, accuracy purpose and as a result identify and choose the source that meets all these requirements. In order to provide students with more support it has been decided to insert guiding questions in each section that will assist students to analyze a source in a more detailed way. In addition, this organizer not only helps to identify the credible sources, but also contributes to the development of the skill of argumentation since students can thoroughly justify their choice of resources.

Section graphic organizers

Another effective tool that can be applied in project-based teaching and learning is section graphic organizers. These organizers are created by Global Perspectives teachers of NIS in order to support students’ productive skills in written form of communication during project-based teaching and learning practice. According to the course specification, the final product of learners should be the Research Report which follows the structure presented by sections such as introduction, context, aims, methods, results, conclusion, evaluation, further research, bibliography and appendices. Each section has elements that should be included in and presented by argumentation elements. This instrument helps learners to organize their ideas in a proper way and present their argument line in a clear and well-structured form.

Table 2

Section graphic organizer

Outline of the section

Introduction (250–350)

Suggested length

Insert your essay part here

Announcement of research topic (Hook).

This is a statement of something sufficiently interesting to motivate your reader to read the rest of the paper.

1–3 sentences

1.

2.

3.

Background of the study

What you already knew about this?

Has any previous research influenced you?

Useful word s –

Interest, discovered, perspective, culture, traditions, belief, research, study, source, secondary, reliable, credible, interested, valuable, influence

5 sentences

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Problem statement

why subject has been chosen

Useful words –

Concern, impact, reason, choice, topic, issue, problem, global, focus, ethical, encourage, responsibility

2–3 sentences

1.

2.

3.

Rationale (personal reasoning)

What personal interests, beliefs or values you have concerning the subject

Useful words –

Belief system, value, value judgment, bias, local perspective, subjective

1–3 sentences

1.

2.

3.

Outline

Short steps of what you plan to do in general

Also mention of personal values or bias

Useful words –

Plan, identify, find out, explore, bias, subjective, values, objective, inductive, claim, hasty generalization, fallacy

2–4 sentences

1.

2.

3.

4.

These types of organizers also assist students to identify the weaknesses in their works and arguments and edit them immediately and reflect on what they learn during the project production process. This form of organizer can be used at the final stage of the project-based teaching and learning as it is an ideal tool to make an effective conclusion about the improvement of argumentation skill in Global Perspectives course.

Interview analysis graphic organizer

During the course students are introduced with the research methods such as qualitative and quantitative and their instruments: interview and survey. Qualitative research is used to interpret and better understand the complex reality of a given situation. In addition, it allows to obtain more specific information e. g. about values, behaviors, opinions and etc. Therefore, it is essential to provide students with a deep understanding of this research method and especially with an instrument. The created graphic organizer has been aimed to assist students to analyze the data and then organize their ideas and present them in a more concise, organized and well-justified way.

Table 3

Interview analysis graphic organizer

Write your codes here

Combine your codes and write categories here

Example:

Talking to colleagues

Changing schedules

Locate and fix

Attending meetings

Example: updating rulebook

Changing schedule

New routines

Locate and fix

problems fast

Quick alarm system

Results section - Describe your categories and how they are connected in argumentation structure. Use a neutral language.

Conclusion

The used graphic organizers on Global Perspectives lessons allow learners to develop their skill of argumentation. It has been noticed that students become more aware of the correct structure of an argument, and they have started to express their opinions and views in a more concise and well-structured way both in written and in oral forms. Thus, based on the teachers’ experience, the role of graphic organizers has been found as essential in terms of not only to improve the skill of argumentation but also to increase the abilities of analysis, synthesis, organization and reflection. Even though all the described graphic organizers have been used only in Global Perspectives lessons at Nazarbayev Intellectual School, it is possible to adapt and apply them in any other environment in order to improve the skill of argumentation.

References:

  1. Acar, O. Argumentation skills and conceptual knowledge of undergraduate students in a Physics by inquiry class. // Dissertation. // The Ohio State University — 2008. — URL: https://etd.ohiolink.edu/!etd.send_file?accession=osu1228972473&disposition=inline
  2. NIS-Programme. /Educational Programme. //Subject Programme “Global Perspectives and Project Work”/ High school (11 grade). //AEO “Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools”. — Astana. — 2018.
  3. C. Costello, B. A. PEEL paragraph writing. //Dip. Ed., M. Ed. — URL: https://www.virtuallibrary.info/peel-paragraph-writing.html (дата обращения 20.02.2019)
  4. Curriculum Development Institute. Personal, Social and Humanities Section. The Use of Graphic Organizers to Enhance Thinking Skills in the Learning of Economics. // CADAL Press. — Honk Kong. — 2001. — URL: https://www.edb.gov.hk/attachment/en/curriculum-development/kla/pshe/references-and-resources/economics/use_of_graphic_organizers.pdf
  5. Dawson, V.M., Venville, G. Res Sci Educ: /Teaching Strategies for Developing Students’ Argumentation Skills About Socioscientific Issues in High School Genetics. — 2010. — С. 40–133.
  6. Institute of Education: LibGuides. Evaluating Resources: / CRAAP Test. — London. — URL: https://libguides.ioe.ac.uk/evaluating/craap (дата обращения 20.02.2019).
  7. Nuffield Foundation. Practical work for learning: /Argumentation. — URL: http://www.nuffieldfoundation.org/practical-work-learning/introduction-argumentation (дата обращения 20.02.2019).
  8. Pauk, W. «The Cornell Note-taking System — Learning Strategies Center». // Cornell University. / The learning Strategies center. — URL http://lsc.cornell.edu/notes.html (дата обращения 20.02.2019).
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): PEEL, URL, CRAAP, NIS, GPPW, CADAL, AEO.


Похожие статьи

Blockchain technology for through-life asset management in the...

The article examines Crypto Labels Reader for blockchain technology is poised as the future of digital transactions, infusing trust, efficiency and transparency into supply chains. But blockchains alone cannot ensure the authenticity of physical goods. Aviation, space and automotive builders are facing a...

Ingliz tilini o’rgatuvchi web-sayt yaratish va inglizcha nutqni tanitish

Основные термины (генерируются автоматически) : PHP, URL, CSS, HTML, LOG, LOGIN, Электронный ресурс.

Trilingualism in the education of Kazakhstan. Its benefits and...

AEO-NIS supports schools: by organising professional development for teachers and managers/leaders; by developing curricula and learning materials; by commissioning independent research into student achievement and programme management; by creating fora for discussion; by...

Сrypto labels system and blockchain as a service for pharma industry

URL https://moluch.ru/archive/212/51882/ (дата обращения: 25.02.2019).

The problem of exploration petroleum | Статья в журнале...

URL https://moluch.ru/archive/82/14846/ (дата обращения: 24.02.2019). The logistics problems of supporting exploration and exploratory drilling in remote locations of the world have been well publicized recently. The problem being recognized more frequently and requiring particular attention during...

The study of archeological researches in the Khorezm oasis during...

Ancient northern trade routes from the region were controlled by Khorezm, referred to as Hvarizam in «Avesta», Hvarazmish — in Behistun scripts, Horasm — in the writings of Arrian and Strabo. Ancient culture of Khorezm, destroyed during the Arab invasion in the 8th century...

A Decision Forest Approach to Cold-start Recommendation

Existing model-based recommenders consider either demographics or content information. However, it is used to recommend for new user or new item. In this paper, we propose a decision forest approach to address the well-known cold-start problem.

A review on data mining tasks and tools | Статья в журнале...

INTRODUCTION. Data mining is a powerful new technology with great potential to help companies focus on the most important information in the data they have collected about the behavior of their customers and potential customers.

Efficiency of teaching of students to critical thinking on computer...

Teacher's Guide. AEO «NIS», 2012, p. 306

Assignments AEO «NIS», 2012. p.66

«Republican Scientific-methodological Pedagogical Magazine «Fundamentals of Informatics» 2015 № 2

Обсуждение

Социальные комментарии Cackle

Похожие статьи

Blockchain technology for through-life asset management in the...

The article examines Crypto Labels Reader for blockchain technology is poised as the future of digital transactions, infusing trust, efficiency and transparency into supply chains. But blockchains alone cannot ensure the authenticity of physical goods. Aviation, space and automotive builders are facing a...

Ingliz tilini o’rgatuvchi web-sayt yaratish va inglizcha nutqni tanitish

Основные термины (генерируются автоматически) : PHP, URL, CSS, HTML, LOG, LOGIN, Электронный ресурс.

Trilingualism in the education of Kazakhstan. Its benefits and...

AEO-NIS supports schools: by organising professional development for teachers and managers/leaders; by developing curricula and learning materials; by commissioning independent research into student achievement and programme management; by creating fora for discussion; by...

Сrypto labels system and blockchain as a service for pharma industry

URL https://moluch.ru/archive/212/51882/ (дата обращения: 25.02.2019).

The problem of exploration petroleum | Статья в журнале...

URL https://moluch.ru/archive/82/14846/ (дата обращения: 24.02.2019). The logistics problems of supporting exploration and exploratory drilling in remote locations of the world have been well publicized recently. The problem being recognized more frequently and requiring particular attention during...

The study of archeological researches in the Khorezm oasis during...

Ancient northern trade routes from the region were controlled by Khorezm, referred to as Hvarizam in «Avesta», Hvarazmish — in Behistun scripts, Horasm — in the writings of Arrian and Strabo. Ancient culture of Khorezm, destroyed during the Arab invasion in the 8th century...

A Decision Forest Approach to Cold-start Recommendation

Existing model-based recommenders consider either demographics or content information. However, it is used to recommend for new user or new item. In this paper, we propose a decision forest approach to address the well-known cold-start problem.

A review on data mining tasks and tools | Статья в журнале...

INTRODUCTION. Data mining is a powerful new technology with great potential to help companies focus on the most important information in the data they have collected about the behavior of their customers and potential customers.

Efficiency of teaching of students to critical thinking on computer...

Teacher's Guide. AEO «NIS», 2012, p. 306

Assignments AEO «NIS», 2012. p.66

«Republican Scientific-methodological Pedagogical Magazine «Fundamentals of Informatics» 2015 № 2

Задать вопрос