Lyrical text: guide marks of lyterary analysis | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Автор:

Рубрика: Филология, лингвистика

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №6 (244) февраль 2019 г.

Дата публикации: 11.02.2019

Статья просмотрена: 7 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Вердеш, Т. И. Lyrical text: guide marks of lyterary analysis / Т. И. Вердеш. — Текст : непосредственный // Молодой ученый. — 2019. — № 6 (244). — С. 261-264. — URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/244/56458/ (дата обращения: 07.03.2021).



The growth of the aesthetic literary taste is achieved primarily by the means of the studied works at the Language classes and the provocative readings suggested by professor. The fundamental condition of a successful lesson is to organize and to adapt the correct usage of the variety of didactic strategies. The analysis of a lyrical text presumes a few important steps: pre-reading, innocent reading, interpretative and objectionable readings. The development of a habit of reading, analyzing and interpreting a poetical text, the skills of comprehension and interpretation assures the efficacy of the lesson, the proposed methodological recommendations ensuring the success of a lyrical text study.

Keywords: reading competence, literary analysis, lyrical text, reading techniques, teaching methods.

Developing reading skills is not only an objective of the schooling process, but also one of the most important means of facilitating learning. In this respect, in the Declaration of Human Rights (Article 26), reading literacy is used as a fundamental instrument for the exercise of the right to education, which argues for national and international strategic priorities, reading where competence becomes an important pillar in the teaching-learning process.

The savor of reading does not come by itself, it is educated by family, school, community, and the emotion of reading a book cannot be explained, but only lived, taking the book in hands and enjoying the pleasure of revelations. Language and literature lessons are just a way of linking with literary-artistic texts, cultivating literary aesthetic taste in time and context.

Of course, before recommending some literary work, the teacher's task is to teach the student how to read / interpret / analyze a text. Finally, the pupils must have a very clear picture of what is a lyrical text and what are the stages of its analysis.

This article aims at analyzing the reading process of the lyrical text and the recommendation of a lyrical analysis model, focusing on the concrete example, the literary work " Laudă zăpezii» by George Călinescu (studied in the 7th grade, Republic of Moldova).

The novelty derives from the proposed analysis model, which can be adapted to any lyrical text, facilitating the lectorial process and developing the reading skills necessary for the youth today.

Certainly, the succession of the recommended stages is not a stereotype, the fundamental condition of a successful lesson being the organization and harmonization of the correct usage of the various didactic strategies. And cultivating reading, analysis and interpretation skills of the poetical text, form the comprehension and interpretation skills that ensure the efficiency of the lesson.

It is also important to point out the fundamental difference between poetry and prose, which should first be sought at the semantical level, since «poetic meaning is the result of collaboration, interdependence between signifier and signified. And interdependence is a defining feature of the structure, in this case of the poetic phrase as a structure that engages both expression and meaning. " [4, p. 26].

In general, the analysis of lyrical text involves several important steps. In this respect, R. Sholes proposes three stages of text study, which correspond to: 1. innocent reading: «text production within (inside) text»; 2. interpretive reading: «text production on (upon) text»; 3. critical reading: «producing text in contrary (against) text». [3, pp. 21–29].

Paul Cornea, referring to the reading technique, [1, p.5–6] analyzes several models of reading, relevant to our point of view being those proposed by W. Gray: 1. The perception of words; 2. Comprehension, involving literary comprehension, the determination of implicit meanings (assumptions) and the release of implications and meanings beyond what they immediately postulate, in other words «the ability to read lines, between lines and beyond lines»; 3. Reaction to the author's ideas and their evaluation (critical opinions, emotional responses, final conclusions); 4. Assimilation (fusion of information and ideas obtained through reading with those in the possession of the reader); and Frans Rutten's model: 1. Visual perception; 2. Semiotically (text elements are investigated as «signs», becoming code units); 3. Semiotic identification (the association of meaning to each recognized sign); 4. Cognitive treatment of the data from the first three operations to produce «concretization», a specific configuration of mental contents formed in the reader's mind following the reading process. [2]

Therefore, starting from the above theoretical approach, we propose four stages of lyrical text study / analysis: 1. Pre-reading, where it will be reflected on the original meaning, the encounter with the paratext and the design of the meaning starting from the title, subtitle, illustrations etc. At this stage can be used various interactive teaching methods that develop critical and creative thinking skills such as: free association, inspired brainstorming, predictive clustering, quintet, Think-Pairs-Present, etc. can be used at this stage.

When studying the lyrical text " Laudă zăpezii», we start from the meaning of the title, what solemn burden of pious attitude, asking for words associated with the title that would help to define the theme: „mă-închin ție, zăpadă”, „cântec de slavă”, „slavă ție, nea....” Pupils can find words of praise in various possible forms (from grave and solemn to cheerful and ironic): Slavă ție, profesor care ne veghezi și luminezi, Mulțumesc ție, clopoțel zglobiu ce anunți sfârșitul lecției etc., specifying that the text to be studied is from the non-traditional odes.

At this stage, emphasis is placed on the lexical-semantical layer, the identification of the meanings of the words, as well as the rewriting tasks of lyrical text. For example: Suggests the popular synonym of the Milky Way: The Milky Way has two corresponding formulas in Romanian: 1. The Milk Way, which refers to the Greek terminology (the goddess Hera's milk that fed Hercules) and 2. The Way-Slaves or the Road-Servants with legendary ascendancy, according to which young people in slavery fled and found their way home with the help of this luminous girdle of stars; — propose the synonym of the word ”curată-clean” (from the last but one verse), used in the last verse; or the meaning of the word ”curată-clean” in the second verse; — select from the text the words that make up the lexical field of the word «zăpadă-snow” (snowflake, snowflake, troyan, bloom, white sheep, etc.); — forms the derivative field of the word «alb-white» (whitening, whitish, white, whitish, bleaching, bleaching, etc.); — compose collocations/figurative meanings /figures of speech using the words from the title (or keywords) and so on. It would be a step of self-empowering of the reader / pupil, to advance in his own interpretation with the certainty that he/she judiciously realized the comprehension of certain textual elements, which would facilitate his access to the integrative signs of the text to be analyzed.

In the second step, explanatory reading, the pupil must demonstrate that he/she understood the text, but also appreciates what he/she read. Here he/she will focus on expressing and capitalizing on the emotional reactions caused by reading, reactions that can constitute the starting points for the interpretation of the text: events, considered essential; feelings caused by the text, etc., we can propose tasks such as: defining the post-electoral state, the emotional reaction, and so on. (Reading«Lauda zăpezii” I admired how great the lyrical ego of snow is about. The intensity of feelings is impressive, and they are marked by suggestive artistic means such as «snow,... like the lily of the flesh»; clear sparkle "«, our loneliness makes you a flower garden «etc. (exaggerating in comparisons), which highlights the lyrical ego's affection for this season of the year.)

At the same stage, a logical fragmentation of poetry is proposed, as the text is organized — it is the compositional structure (a single painting or several paintings, we mention that the painting does not coincide with the texture stroke, but draws out a single poetic idea). (The author presents an ample painting of winter, where the venerated is «snow», an idea outlined by the suite of comparisons: „ești spumoasă ca laptele ce dă în foc”, „ești nevinovată ca un cor de copii”, „ești curată ca pânza de in” etc.). Also, the elements of versification (lexis, prosody, morphosyntax) will be elucidated: Through the well-known words the author succeeds in creating an unfamiliar image, a mysterious world that we want to discover. We note that it is mainly used in the nouns: «song», «flame», «sparkle», «garden», etc., which would create concrete visual images but at the same time mysterious by the message «released» by them. The twelve syllable lyrics, the amphigraphic rhythm and the end rhyme mark the musicality and originality of the lyrics.

Among the didactic methods that would make this step more efficient, we mention: the cube, the multiprocessing interactivity, the guided discussion, the thoughtful hats, SINELG, 6 Why? and so on.

Finally, the pupils will demonstrate that in literary texts belonging to the lyrical genre, the author communicates feelings, and the lyrical ego is the voice through which the author expresses his soul states, ideas, using different artistic means.

Follow the third stage — re-reading (interpretative reading): interpreting artistic images (Although there are more possibilities (there are more white flowers), the poet chooses the lily for the beginning, emphasizing the effect of cleanliness, It is also impressive the ascension of the series of comparisons from ordinary reference elements (milk, linen) to ruin sacrificed by the presence of Mary and the infant Jesus (ODĂ — sacred song).); it is thought upon the problem, the theme, the message, the reasons being established (the relation between the title-theme-message): The title «Laudă zăpezii” is the formula that would define the permanent references to the snow, which find their place in a miraculous, positive, bright. The eulogy brought to snow gives the universe created by this «puddle», «sparkling» matter, etc.

Once the text is separated in: words, syntaxes, images, motives, symbols, ideas, messages — these are interpreted, commented, criticized, therefore the fourth stage is critical reading that involves tasks like: contemplating upon the problem...; use your opinion in a short comment...; build conversations from convincing replicas, spotting ideas from the poetic text; generalize your reader's experience with reading and analyzing the proposed text, write an essay titled «The Universe — Created by Snow», etc. At this stage, the pupil expresses his / her argument regarding the studied text, it is about of some conclusions, that impressed the work or what differentiates his/her work from the others in the same volume, or those proposed by other authors.

Finally, the analysis of a lyrical text anchors the following stages: deciphering / decoding, reception, interpretation and criticism, which both the teacher and the pupil have to take into account if they want their lectured skills to be formed/developed.

And as final, the pupils will be able to: — read the lyrical text expressively; — explain with the dictionary the unknown words and reuse them in new contexts; — to propose synonyms, antonyms, homonyms, paronyms for the recommended words; — to form the semantic field / to construct the lexical family of the indicated word; — extract key words from the text, but also different figures of speech; — make sentences with selected figures of speech; — to propose figures of speech in which contained the key words from the text; — to identify elements of structure (parts, pictures, verses), versatile elements (rhyme, rhythm) and compositional procedures (antithesis, parallelism, etc.); — to reveal the dominant sentiment and lively states; — identify the reasons; — recognize the artistic processes and decode the connotative and denotative meanings; — comment on the title suggestion; — to formulate the theme of the literary production; — report the title of the work to its message; — to identify in the text traits demonstrating the relation to the genre and literary species (mode of exposure, presence of lyrical self, direct transmission of sentiments, etc.); — to illustrate the author's vision regarding the issue addressed; — to expose hi/her opinion towards the lyrical studied text.

Of course, the range of didactic strategies may vary, facilitating the organization of the instructive-educational process, but also ensuring the effectiveness of studying the lyrical text.

Steps in lyrical text analysis

Pre-lecture

Explicative lecture

Interpretative lecture

Critic Lecture

Models and didactical proceses

  • Lexical map
  • Asumption map
  • Readers reaction
  • Clustering predinctiv

Etc.

  • Pair reading
  • Paralel notes agenda
  • Work in groups
  • Round table
  • Free writing
  • The Sqare
  • Roleplay
  • The Panel
  • Thinking hats
  • Debates
  • SINELG

Etc.

  • Thinking hats
  • Pens in a cup
  • 6 whys?
  • Web discution
  • Cvintet
  • Creative controversation
  • Heaven
  • Method 6/3/5
  • Roleplay

Etc.

  • Argumentative Essay
  • PRES
  • Project
  • Literal mail
  • The circle
  • Debates
  • Leave me the last word
  • Philips (6/6)

Etc.

It will be done by using different methods of student organisation (colective, group, pairs or individual),sustaining the tehnic of teaching throw cooperation

Conclusions: The analysis of the poetical literary text does not only develop reading competence, but also forms a culture of reading, enhancing transversal skills: critical, creative, digital, civic, etc.

«A correct reading is an educated one».

Nicolae Manolescu

References:

  1. Cornea P. Introducere în teoria lecturii. București, Minerva, 1988,306 p.
  2. Panfil A. Limba și literatura română în Gimnaziu. Structuri Didactice Deschise. București, Editura Paralela 45, 2003.
  3. Scholes R. Textual Power, Literary Theory and Teaching of English. New Haven and London, YaleUn, Press,1985, p. 2l-29.
  4. Ţugui G. Interpretarea textului poetic. Iaşi, 1997, p. 26.
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): SINELG, PRES.


Ключевые слова

teaching methods, reading competence, literary analysis, lyrical text, reading techniques

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