The article is about the peculiarities of reading skills in upper grades. Mastering the technology of reading is carried out as a result of the fulfillment of pre-text, while- text and post-text tasks. They consider the lexical-grammatical and linguistic features of the text to be read.
Keywords: background knowledge, reading, English, comprehension, Information Transfer, method.
Статья посвящена особенностям навыков чтения в старших классах. Овладение техникой чтения осуществляется в результате выполнения предтекстовых, текстовых и посттекстовых заданий. Они учитывают лексико-грамматические и лингвистические особенности текста для чтения.
Ключевые слова: базовые знания, понимание, передача информации, метод.
Mastering the technology of reading is carried out as a result of the fulfillment of pre-text, while- text and post-text tasks. Pre-text tasks are aimed at modeling the background knowledge necessary and sufficient for the reception of a specific text, at eliminating the semantic and linguistic difficulties of understanding it and at the same time at developing reading skills, developing an «understanding strategy». They take into account the lexical-grammatical and linguistic features of the text to be read. In the text tasks, the students are offered communicative attitudes, which indicate the type of reading (learning, introductory, viewing, search), speed and the need to solve certain cognitive-communicative tasks in the process of reading.
In addition, the trainees perform a series of exercises with the text, ensuring the formation of skills and abilities corresponding to a particular type of reading. Post-text tasks are designed to test read comprehension, to control the degree of read ability and the possible use of the information obtained in future professional activities.
The most appropriate tasks for working on learning to study reading are:
- Asking / Answering Question (question-answer exercises) involve requesting and providing the necessary information.
- Categorizing-categorization-the grouping of linguistic or semantic elements according to designated categories or the definition of these categories.
- Close- restoration / filling of gaps-reception of work with a coherent text. The students' task is to restore the deformed text, to pick up the missing words within the meaning, based on the context or the usual word combinability.
- Completing — an addition exercise — a job based on a passage of a text or a series of unfinished sentences that need to be completed using the information obtained from the read text.
- Correction-correction- definition and correction of language or content violations in the text.
- Gap-filling-filling in gaps/omissions-accepting work, which is based on the method of addition or restoration of missing language elements.
- Information Transfer- information transcoding is a work reception that consists in transferring information from one form of its presentation to another, for example, non-verbal transformation (picture, gesture, etc.) or vice versa.
- Jigsaw reading (listening) -“mosaic”- reception of work based on the division of the “information bank”, i.e. text to read or listen to. After acquaintance with a certain part of the information, students exchange it and restore the general content of the text.
- Matching is a method of work, which consists in recognizing verbal and non-verbal elements that correspond to each other, for example, between a picture and a sentence, a word and its definition, the beginning and end of a sentence, etc.
- Mind-mapping-compilation of a semantic map-presentation of the basic concepts of the topic/problem under discussion in a graphically ordered and logically related form.
- Multiple choice-the choice of the correct answer from the options.
- Reordering(Sequencing)-logical rearrangement/restoration of the sequence redistribution of the proposed material in a logical sequence or according to the plan. The result of the work is recreated coherent text, a series of pictures, etc.
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