The article provides a brief description of analytical methods for assessing the quality and consumer properties of food products. The importance of the concepts of quality and food safety is noted.
Keywords: consumer protection, analysis methods, food quality
Nutrition — is an integral part of life and maintaining human health. When purchasing food, whether in a store, on a market or at a catering establishment, the consumer expects to receive high-quality and safe products. These characteristics of food products, according to the requirements of the law «On Protection of Consumer Rights», are decisive .
Speaking about the system of providing the consumer with high-quality food products, it should be noted that in the producer-consumer chain, an important element is the choice of analysis method in assessing the quality and safety of food products. This is what can provide an opportunity to confirm the compliance of raw materials and finished products with the established requirements. Knowledge of food research methods helps to solve problems of compliance with their sanitary and hygienic requirements, environmental safety .
According to academician Yu.A. Zolotov  chemical analysis of food products is a fairly routine task, but in our country not enough attention is paid to its solution. The fact is that now, when there is an active development of the fuel — energy base, the chemicalization of a number of areas of industry and agriculture, the danger of contamination (pollution) of the raw material with various substances harmful to human health increases. In this case, the relevance of the application of new, express analytical methods for the analysis of food products, the assessment of their suitability and consumer qualities only increases .
Depending on the measuring instruments used, food analysis methods can be divided into measuring, registration, computational, sociological, expert and organoleptic. The most important and objective are measuring methods, which are based on information obtained using measuring and control means. They can be divided into physical, chemical, physicochemical, and biological [5, 6, 7].
Modern measuring methods include infrared spectroscopy, which allows to obtain complete information about the structure and composition of organic substances. IR radiation is used to study the fatty acid composition of dairy products, the determination of pesticides in food products, in the analysis of food dyes, as well as to control technological processes in the processing of plant and animal raw materials.
Used to determine the content in the production of vitamins A, K, B1, B2, B6, C, nicotinic acid, tocopherols and carotene . For edible oils, the express method of BIR spectroscopy (big infrared range) is preferable, since most properties of oils vary greatly at different stages of their production. This method allows you to quickly and effectively control the properties of products, as in stages production, and at its end. The method allows to determine the ratios of saturated and unsaturated acids, cis and trans isomers in the product. .
Ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy is used for sensitive determination of small quantities of elements in the analysis of organic substances, as well as vitamins, hormones, antibiotics, carcinogenic compounds. The advantage of this method is its high selectivity.
Atomic spectroscopy of substances is carried out after their transfer to the state of atomic vapor or gaseous state. Thus, the method of atomic emission analysis with inductively coupled plasma allows, with extremely high sensitivity and accuracy, to determine almost simultaneously about 70 different chemical elements in the raw materials and finished products .
Polarimetry, also related to optical methods of analysis, is based on measuring the angle of rotation of the plane of polarization of light as it passes through optically active substances. This method is used to measure the concentration of optically active substances (polysaccharides, some amino acids, antibiotics, etc.).
Chromatographic analysis has attracted the attention of researchers since the first days of the appearance of this method. Chromatography methods are based on various physicochemical processes (ion exchange, diffusion, adsorption), which allow the separation and analysis of the most diverse components of food products.
The state standard of many states, and Uzbekistan including, occupies a special place electrochemical methods, such as conductometry, ionometry, coulometry, polarography . From this list, the inversion methods, in particular, the differential-pulse inversion voltammetry, providing for the preliminary accumulation of the analyte at the indicator electrode, stand out in particular. The scientific and methodological literature is represented by numerous articles and reviews concerning the use of stripping voltammetry in the analysis of food, environmental objects, pharmaceutical and biological preparations.
In these articles, it is shown that inverse voltammetry and hybrid methods based on it freely compete with other widely used methods for analyzing food products according to such characteristics as sensitivity, accuracy, the possibility of simultaneous determination of several elements, while remaining budgetary analytical methods with low costs of the equipment [11,12].
Rheological methods also allow studying the methods for determining the structural and mechanical properties of raw materials, semi-finished products and functional products necessary for the regulation of technological processes and quality control at all stages of production .
Summarizing, it should be noted that during the examination of food products it is now possible to use a large range of analytical methods. Obviously, their role is extremely great, since meeting the requirements for product quality, as a rule, guarantees its high consumer properties. However, it is extremely important to take into account the problems associated with the unsatisfactory state of the environment causing contamination of raw materials and finished food products.
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