This article is about development of dialogic speech in a foreign language. Here is given about methodology of teaching dialogic speech such as: gestures, facial expressions, and indications of surrounding objects and the ability to use the language being studied for communication.
Key words: development, methodology, surrounding objects, the ability, communication, surrounding
Эта статья о развитии диалогической речи на иностранном языке. Здесь дается информация о методологии преподавания диалогической речи, такой как: жесты, выражения лица и указания на окружающие предметы, а также умение использовать изучаемый язык для общения.
Ключевые слова: развитие, методология, окружающие объекты, способность, общение, окружение.
The main and leading goal in the teaching of foreign languages in a secondary school is a communicative goal, which defines the entire educational process. The development of dialogic speech in a foreign language being studied is one of the most acute problems of modern pedagogical science. This is confirmed by a number of studies, articles, manuals, which have appeared recently. And, nevertheless, this problem requires further methodological resolution, since modern requirements for dialogic speech — to teach students to talk in the foreign language being studied — are not always and fully met. This situation requires a new search for a more rational methodology for teaching dialogic speech, in which the desired practical results would be achieved by the shortest possible route, with a minimum expenditure of time and effort, and the learning process itself would be feasible, interesting and exciting for students. Despite the fact that dialogic speech is more difficult than monologue, both from the point of intensity of attention, and from the point of view of the diversity and quality of the speech patterns used, and for a number of other reasons, nevertheless, from the point of view of consistency in teaching oral speech, preference should be given dialogic speech. After all, it is through dialogue that individual speech patterns, whole structures, which are then used in monologue speech, are worked out and remembered. Bakhtin (1984, 1986) believes that in a dialogic speech, a person clearly announces that he or she does not merge with other people . Already at the initial stage of teaching English, students can, and the teacher should help them acquire the ability to use the language being studied for communication. At the initial stage, an oral beginning from the first steps creates conditions for the disclosure of the communicative function of the language, taking into account the student’s 8–10-year-old abilities, to more easily perceive speech and reproduce what is heard and brings the learning process closer to the conditions of real communication, which causes students motivation to learn English. Speaking about the tasks of teaching dialogue, it should be noted that the methodology of teaching dialogic speech has recently emerged as an independent aspect of teaching oral speech. There are still many questions in this area that require theoretical and experimental research. These include: the ratio of dialogic and monologue speech in the course of secondary school; principles and techniques for creating a communicative environment in a lesson; features of speech perception in the process of dialogue; selection of situations that underlie learning dialogue at different stages of learning; selection of material for teaching dialogue. Each of the two forms of oral speech — dialogue and monologue — has its own linguistic features, so a differentiated approach is needed to learn each of them. A dialogue is a form of speech in which there is a direct exchange of statements between two or more persons. At the heart of any dialogue are various statements, the combination of which constitutes its essence. Broeckeman (2004) in “Bakhtin speaking: A Dialogic Approach to Teaching” argues that the dialogic process of teaching is basically a mutual communication between the students and the teacher. He comes to the conclusion that it should be considered in the future because it can have a remarkable impact on student’s learning . According to the goal, it is generally accepted to distinguish between narrative, interrogative and motivational statements, each of which can be affirmative and negative. The narration consists in reporting (positive or negative) about any fact of reality, phenomenon, event. The questions are intended to induce the interlocutor to express a thought that interests the speaker. In the motivational statements expressed the will of the speaker: order, request, prayer, threat, advice, suggestion, caution; consent, permission, waiver; appeal, invitation to joint action; a wish. Each of the three statements mentioned above can become an exclamation with a corresponding emotional tint expressed in the corresponding intonation. The exclamation intonation is often accompanied by a special structure.
So, in English, exclamation sentences often begin with the pronoun what or adverbs How to How well he reads! How clever she is! What is an interesting book that is! These types encompass an infinite variety of specific statements that are spoken by the speakers in the process of communication. As shown by special studies, they are all very common in dialogic speech in different languages. Dialogic speech has its own characteristics in relation to the selection, design and functional orientation of the use of language material. In a study by Wells et al (2006) entitled “Dialogue in the Classroom”, the writers believe that language has a key role in classroom as a tool for system communication. It is used to develop the student’s skills . Perhaps the omission of the conjugate part of the predicate and the infinitive with modal verbs:
Have you read this book? — Yes, I have.
Can you speak English? — Yes, I can.
Dialogic speech is always motivated. This means that we always speak for some reason, for some purpose, which is determined either by external or internal stimuli. This characteristic must be taken into account at the initial stage. It is necessary to cause the student to have a desire, a need to speak, and for this it is necessary to create conditions under which there would be a desire to say something, to express one’s thoughts and feelings, and not just to reproduce others, which, unfortunately, is often observed at school. During the lesson, the teacher should introduce students to learning in English by using real situations or by creating learning situations using clarity: toys, objects, pictures, drawings, applications, etc., as well as a verbal description of the situation “Let's talk about your mothers”.
- Bakhtin, M. M. (1984) Problems of Dostoevsky’s Poetics. Edited and translated by Caryl Emerson. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Bakhtin, M. M. (1986) Speech Genres and Other Late Essays. Translated by Vern W. McGee. Austin, Tx: University of Texas Press.
- Broeckman, B.F. (2004). What Is the Collaborative Classroom? NCREL, Oak Brook.
- Wells, Gordon, and RebecaMejiaArauz.(2006). «Dialogue in the classroom». The journal of the learning sciences 15, no. 3 (2006):