Psychological and pedagogical features of adolescents with special educational needs | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Библиографическое описание:

Хайдаров И. О., Омонова Ш. М., Нормурадова Ф. А. Psychological and pedagogical features of adolescents with special educational needs // Молодой ученый. — 2019. — №4. — С. 419-421. — URL https://moluch.ru/archive/242/55937/ (дата обращения: 25.06.2019).



In the formation and development of a harmonious person, it is important that the upbringing and training should correspond to the age of the child. In the mental and physical development of man, development always proceeds. While the child develops mentally and physically, he goes through several stages. Education to a large extent associated with the characteristics of the child, with the influence of the environment in which he lives. It must be remembered that the essence of the microenvironment in which a child should live is determined by people who influence its development and the connection with them. The child will be in relationship with family members, caregivers, teachers, with close family people. These relationships play a very large role in the development of the child. The child is brought up under the influence of their loved ones.

Childhood. The consciousness of a child of preschool age is a concrete consciousness, and he thinks about what he is conscious of and represents. Therefore, when it comes to something unknown, you need to explain to him, comparing it with the phenomenon familiar to the child. During communication with others, the child forms his own views, and he begins to evaluate the actions «good» and «bad». During this period in the life of a child, along with the game, they begin to acquire meaning and the first skills of work activity appear: the child begins to draw, sculpt various things from clay. Also, they perform simple tasks set by adults. Connect them and work feasibly gives a good result.

A child of a small school age of 6–7 years old (some scientists call this age the “age of improvement”) is mentally and physically ready for school. According to the law “On Education” of the Republic of Uzbekistan, all 6–7-year-old children start school. Play activity, which previously played an important role in the child’s life, gives way to learning activities. At first, the transition to such “responsible work” is difficult for a child, but he gradually begins to get used to it.

Pupils of small age have a certain idea of the social world, and they are very interested in learning the essence of the phenomena that take place. Educational activities organized at school stimulate the development of positive qualities necessary for mental activity. It should be noted that the brain of students of a small age is developing rapidly: there are changes in its structure. They have developed lungs, but the respiratory tract and diaphragm are poorly developed, so if they remain stationary for a long time, there is a lack of oxygen in the body.

Such features of physical development require a cautious approach to primary school students. They need to give free rein; you need to protect them from stress. Children of this age should move more, be cleaner, have enough rest, sleep — others should take care of it. Need to be careful whether they are sitting on the desk. During the game you need to protect them from sudden movements.

Adolescence. In intellectual development, special attention must be paid to adolescence. This period is the most difficult period in human development, and this period is called a transition period. The transition period is a transition from childhood to adolescence. The complexity of adolescence is associated with anatomical, physiological and psychological characteristics. In the activities of a teenager takes a special place to study. Studying for a teenager turns into a familiar, everyday matter and becomes inattentive. There is a decline in learning lessons, but in the performance of independent work their witness is observed. In the behavior of the teenager are noticed the negative side. This happens because a teenager wants to be independent. If the teacher is not well aware of the features of his student and there is no trust between them, then such negative aspects of character traits as disobedience and disrespect for elders begin to appear in the behavior of the teenager and this becomes a feature of character. The attention of the student is attracted to matters outside of school. In order to form activity and initiative in adolescents, it is necessary to attract them to public works. For a teenager, the attention of his peers, the opinion of society is even more important than the opinion of his parents. Therefore, he tries to gain honor, wants to become a leader. If he cannot show himself from the good side, he is ready to show himself even from the bad side. And this sometimes leads a teenager to a criminal microenvironment. To prevent this, the right decision is to give every teenager a job as they can. Only then the teenager realizes that he is needed for society. In a teenager during this period, control over his feelings is only beginning to form. This is reflected in his behavior: he becomes rude, nervous; this feature of character is especially striking during discussions and disputes. Even if he is wrong, he wants to prove that he is right. At 13–14 years of age, adolescents begin to develop qualities such as responsibility, a sense of duty. During this period, a teenager will have a desire to choose an ideal for him, to strive for a goal. Such qualities as moral look are formed. Dumas play a particularly important role in the life of a teenager. One of the main tasks of the teacher is to direct students in the right direction. So, in dealing with a teenager you need to be patient. He needs to be given freedom, not to be ordered, but to be advised, and this is a guarantee of the proper upbringing of adolescents of this age.

His age is characterized by the activity of all types of activities; learning activities are pushed into the background. Leading activities can be considered communication with peers. So I. S. Kon argued that a teenager can fully reveal himself only when communicating with his peers. Therefore, most often at this age, boys and girls choose to be friends of their peers who experience the same feelings, experience the same problems and have similar interests and hobbies. At this stage, a strong friendship is established, which is distinguished by selectivity of relations, stability and depth. Among themselves, adolescents violently conflict and reconcile. [6] Often at this stage the circle of contacts and interests changes. An important moment of this period is the search for one's place in society, and the realization that you «mean» in a circle of peers. The teenager is motivated to take a certain place in the team. There is a search for recognition of the value of the self. A teenager begins to experience a sense of adulthood, which D. B. Elkonin described as follows: “A sense of adulthood is a neoplasm of consciousness through which a teenager compares himself with others (adults and mates), finds patterns for learning, builds his relationships with other people, and rearranges his activities ". [9] In communication with peers, there is a replay of various aspects of human relations; the desire for deep mutual understanding is realized. Communication with peers is an activity in which the practical development of moral norms and values takes place. Formed the main neoplasm of the psyche — self-awareness.

Under the influence of society, the worldview, moral beliefs and ideals of adolescents are formed. Feelings of patriotism, internationalism, responsibility, strong-willed traits of character: perseverance, purposefulness develops. Adults often invade these processes and want to send a teenager who is very impulsive in dealing with others. Conflicts arise when they are trying to control, punish, restrict, demand submission, obedience from them, do not take into account the wishes and interests of the adolescent. Such methods are absolutely unacceptable, as they traumatize the psyche of a teenager and destroy trust with them. The adolescent should be given more opportunities for independent decision-making, provide the right to choose, form a sense of responsibility for their actions and actions. M. N. Thugo noted that adolescents, who receive sufficient support in society and family, overcome these difficulties more easily.

As for interests and hobbies, it should be noted that the attention of girls is directed to the person and the sphere of his being. Boys have more pronounced inclinations to be distracted by direct business than to do what is directly required. In general, the range of interests of boys is wider than girls.

One of the most important moments in adolescence is the physical development of the child under the influence of hormones. From a physiological point of view, adolescence is due to hormonal changes. The appearance of secondary sexual characteristics (changes in the proportion of the body, pubic hair growth, armpits, the development of external and internal genital organs, the appearance of menstruation in girls and wet dreams in boys), which indicates the formation of reproductive function. Normally, sexual and physiological maturation is interconnected. Under the action of hormones, the mass of adipose tissue increases noticeably, due to this the figure feminizes. During this period, various changes and disorders can occur in the body, which in most cases is caused by the restructuring of the nervous, immune and endocrine systems. There are changes in the central nervous system; there is a decrease in the threshold of excitability, the liability of the vegetative reaction. In this period, the manifestation of sexual desire begins. At this stage of the restructuring of the body, an adult should be close by, and try to explain to the adolescent the reason for the changes occurring in the body. You should not avoid talking about it. Many modern parents simply try not to focus their attention on this, in order to avoid a delicate conversation. Thereby, further aggravating the condition of the teenager.

Only with all this in mind, can one help a teenager prepare for adulthood, train his ability to adequately recognize his physical and psychological characteristics, establish normal relations with people of his own and opposite sex in all spheres of life, fulfill his needs in accordance with moral and ethical standards in society norms.

References:

  1. Karimov V. M. Psychology of family life. — Tashkent, 2006.
  2. Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan. — Tashkent, 2014.
  3. Family psychology. Edited by Shomarov G. B. — Tashkent: Shark, 2000.
  4. Dragunova T. Century. Age psychology. Psychological features of a teenager. — Moscow:, 1979. — 141 p.
  5. Bozovic L. I., Ed. DI Feldstein. Problems of personality formation. — Voronezh: MODEK, 1995. — 352 p.
  6. Ilyin, E. P. Emotions and feelings. — SPb.: Peter, 2002. — 752 p.
  7. Feldstein DI Problems of developmental and educational psychology.. — Moscow: International Pedagogical Academy, 1995. — 368 p.
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): MODEK.


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