The article is about that listening is one of the most important skills for primary school children to master, but it doesn’t always come easily, especially in the early years of school. But with a bit of work, it can help your child develop their listening ability, with knock-on improvements in their achievement at school.
Key words: listening, games, interactive, pre-, while-, post-, activities, intonation, atmosphere, task
В статье рассказывается о том, что аудирование — это один из самых важных навыков, которым должны овладеть ученики начальных классов, но это не всегда легко, особенно в первые годы обучения в школе. Но если немного поработать, это может помочь вашему ребенку развить свои способности к слушанию, а также улучшить их успеваемость в школе.
Ключевые слова: аудирование, игры, интерактив, до, во время, после, деятельность, интонация, атмосфера, задача
When people talk, listen completely. Most people never listen.
Teaching the semantic perception of speech by ear involves the students performing exercises on the formation of general auditory skills, speech exercises and subsequent training with audio text, that is, listening teaching is aimed at developing and improving listening mechanisms. Listening as an active mental activity is a complex process of perception and understanding of the voiced speech. And the elements of visual perception (gestures, facial expressions) and intonation, breaking the speech into syntagmas, help to understand the speech. The main tasks of the teacher in the listening lesson: prepare the child to audition through a variety of PRE-listening tasks in order to generate interest, focus on the topic and update the vocabulary before listening; help while listening — DURING-listening, to remove difficulties while listening and to focus on some important points and to learn to hear exactly the right information; discuss, draw conclusions after listening — POST-listening, not only to check how well the content of the audio material is understood, but also to consolidate knowledge, and also — this is the motive for listening. PRE-listening, DURING-listening and POST-listening are the three stages of the so-called PDP reception lesson, which allows you to build and improve receptive skills and abilities, reading and listening, and also helps you develop skills in understanding printed or audio text. In addition, lesson activities within the PDP are organized to such an extent and sequence that students can better understand the content of the text. And I find that the most important part of a PDP is PRE-listening. It seems to us that in real life we are not preparing for the perception of speech, but this is not quite so. Subconsciously, for example, when ordering lunch at a restaurant, we are ready to hear, and we know approximately that we will respond to the waiter. Or, attending a lecture, we are also ready to perceive speech on a specific scientific or cognitive topic, anticipating its content. And in the lesson, the student must also be prepared to perceive the audio material on a specific topic, since the level of understanding depends on how we can prepare the students and tune them to listening. So what are the goals of the first stage — PRE-Listening? To establish a situation, a topic that will be discussed — to give an idea of what will be discussed arouse interest in the topic — perhaps, having touched the topic of the future dried material on personal experience. So, if you talk about animals — talk about the zoo or about what animals are found in the forest, in the field, etc. Actualize knowledge on the topic — What do you know about...? Where are they…? What it is? What problems do they face? Why are they important? Activate vocabulary on a topic — for example, in the form of a brainstorm-type microgame “Who knows more words: (verbs, nouns, adverbs) on a topic?” Predict the content — an attempt to guess by title, subject, illustration, what can be discussed. To acquaint with new words — unfamiliar words should not interfere with the perception of speech.
Check understanding of the purpose of listening — make sure that students understand the task of listening, have some ideas about the content. Predicting the content by title, theme, supports in the form of pictures, keywords and expressions before listening can, for example, by filling out a card, In the process of directly listening to WHILE — listening, students should: determine what is at stake, where events take place, etc.; pay attention to what remains to be misunderstood and formulate a question about it; confirm or refute their conjectures made during the PRE-listening process; draw conclusions, evaluate. Pace and pause while listening are important. Making pauses in listening, you must: to summarize — what has happened so far; try to guess what may happen next, assuming all predictions are equally probable; Ask students to explain why they think this way, avoiding evaluations like “right” or “wrong”, and using such as “possible” or “likely”. In order to focus the attention of students while listening, it is also advisable to use handouts — the so-called “Listening guide” (see above). The POST-listening stage is just as important. It shows: how deeply the students understood the audio material; how much he is interested in them; were their assumptions true? Listen in order to fully understand what is being said to you.
To do this, you can: view and correct preliminary entries in the “Listening guide”; analyze, critically evaluate and draw conclusions on the material heard; summarize the information, do it in the form of oral statements or presentations, or dramatizing dialogues, etc.
- The Listening Guide: A How-To Approach on Ways to Promote Educational Democracy International Journal of Qualitative Methods January-December 2016: