The task of training professionals for the main spheres of human activity in the contemporary socio-cultural situation has become particularly relevant.
The higher school has convincingly proved its enormous potential in solving actual problems of great national importance at the present stage. The traditional system of higher education, focused on the training of executives is no longer able to meet the demands of modern practice. In the new social conditions, professionals are required who are capable of solving the problems of the further development of science, technology, production and education in a productive, authentic and creative way.
The tasks assigned to higher education now require urgent, persistent search for reserves to improve the effectiveness of university studies. These reserves lie not so much in private improvements, but in solving strategic problems of higher education. New values have appeared in society — self-development, self-education, independent work of students, which became the basis of a new paradigm in pedagogy — a personality-oriented approach to learning. The development of a crisis social and cultural situation requires the ability of each individual to learn to acquire knowledge, to look for effective forms of developing creative thinking, to form mind independence, to receive maximum information in the shortest possible time, that is, to self-educate, self-educate, self-improve. This problem was solved before, but with all the urgency, significance and relevance, it is set only now. And especially, this problem is acutely felt when introducing modern learning technologies.
Self-education as a conscious and purposeful activity of a person to improve his personality should be considered, first of all, from the point of view of the content of what should be improved. The future teacher sets himself the goal — how to best prepare for the upcoming professional activity. Consequently, the content of professional self-education of a student should be all the professionally significant qualities of his personality, including both his worldview and physical health.
He who has not mastered the general methodology, the dialectical method of cognition and activity, will constantly stumble upon common problems in solving specific problems. Therefore, first of all, we should talk about the high level of methodological preparation of the future teacher, about preparing him for the continuous development of his ideological, political, moral and spiritual culture, about developing the ability for a wide and deep socio-pedagogical thinking and creativity.
The requirements for professional competence of the teacher and his practical preparedness are also becoming very rigid. Without a deep knowledge of general, child and age psychology, without a deep and critical acquaintance with the achievements of modern methodological and pedagogical thought, an effective, creative work of a teacher is impossible.
The personality traits of the teacher that meet the specified requirements of pedagogical activity can be classified as common, special, and individually unique.
For a more detailed examination of the structure of the teacher’s personality, we use the psychological concept of personality developed by Professor K. K. Platonov. This concept is distinguished by a number of advantages: it allows you to quite clearly see a well-balanced model of the structure of personality in general, covers everything essential in a person, and is convenient for use in a variety of ways. In addition, the structural approach allows us to more clearly identify the system of requirements that his profession makes to the personality of a teacher.
The content of the leading personality substructure is its social orientation, the system of its leading attitudes and needs, its motives, attitudes, ideals. The second substructure includes everything that is included in the content of an individual's experience: knowledge, skills, actual abilities, general culture and development. The third substructure is formed by the peculiarities of the cognitive, emotional, and volitional processes of the personality — as the basis of its general abilities. Finally, the fourth substructure covers hereditarily given individual personality characteristics.
Thus, the first and most important group of requirements for the teacher’s personality is the requirements for him as a representative of modern democratic society and the performer of the most important social order: he forms personalities and forms them only as his personality. The teacher himself must be brought up. Here we are talking about the ideological, political and moral-pedagogical qualities of the teacher. Including about interests and needs, about beliefs and norms of behavior, about ideals, about mastering the basics of professional and pedagogical ethics. This should also include the general personal qualities and character traits and, in general, the orientation of the teacher’s personality.
The most essential components of a teacher’s professional image are deep knowledge of the foundations of dialectical materialism, ideological and political conviction, awareness of national and universal values, a high sense of social duty and responsibility.
The high level of formation of these social qualities of the personality of a teacher depends, first of all, on the activity in mastering dialectic thinking, in developing the skills and abilities of social and political activities, on his self-educational and self-educational activities.
The second group of requirements for the teacher’s personality relates to his individual experience — professional preparedness, including deep knowledge not only in the field of the subject of teaching and its methods, but also in psychology, history and theory of pedagogy, in the technology of the pedagogical process, and general development. At the same time, the quality characteristic of a teacher’s professional preparedness does not depend on the amount of knowledge and skills he has learned, but on the development of his emotional-motivational sphere and the processes of pedagogical creative thinking on the formation of pedagogically significant will habits, that is, on the level of general mental development.
At the same time, the competence of the teacher also implies the practical preparation of mastering basic pedagogical skills. An infinite number of pedagogical activities that implement the functions of training and education is carried out by a small number of professional skills. The most generally accepted modern pedagogy is the classification given by N. V. Kuzmina. She identifies the following basic pedagogical skills: gnostic, design, constructive, communicative, and organizational.
Taking this classification as a basis, we will make some adjustments to it: we will consider design and constructive skills as one group, since they perform one common function — anticipation of the expected result. From communicative skills we will allocate information skills into an independent group. The matter of communication, the transfer of public experience to the younger generation is so complex that it can be considered as an independent phenomenon.
Changes in personality coincide with the changes that it makes in the outside world. Without organizing a conscious and vigorous activity to change the surrounding life for the better, it is impossible to achieve genuine results in education. The teacher’s strategic thinking streamlines all his activities.
The second level of pedagogical thinking is characterized by the ability of the teacher to materialize his pedagogical ideas into unique technological structures. Without the development of such constructions and technologies of the pedagogical process, the teacher finds his work for random success, and more often for failure. It is too early to say that we can quite satisfactorily develop the technology of the pedagogical process. In practice, the teacher does this to the extent that his intuition tells him. Pedagogical science is indebted to the teacher and, in this respect, unfortunately, in the pedagogical business, people often take up the business, relying on common goals — slogans, not knowing which means to achieve them, i.e., they act by trial and error.
Pedagogical thinking at this tactical level is manifested in the ability to develop educational tasks or create educational situations, to make maps, according to which you can work out the skills of students.
No less important is the third level — the level of operational thinking of the teacher. He has his own difficulties. They are due to the infinite variety of specific conditions of pedagogical activity. A teacher needs both knowledge of the general laws of the pedagogical process and the ability to apply these laws to individual and particular phenomena. And this just requires an independent creative thinking, manifested in the ability of the teacher to the expedient achievements.
In the pedagogical process, nothing repeats itself, exactly, nothing can be finally decided according to the instructions prepared in advance, although behind each variant of the pedagogical act stands a certain generalized pedagogical scheme.
As can be seen, the content of intellectual self-education by necessity includes the development of the ability for pedagogical analysis and synthesis, the development of such qualities of thinking as criticality, independence, breadth, flexibility, activity, efficiency, as well as the development of observation, pedagogical memory and creative imagination.
With differences in the types of nervous system and temperament, character and abilities, the teacher must be distinguished by a high emotional sensitivity to the personality of another person, and have a strong moral education. However, we must bear in mind that the emotional-volitional sphere is the most individually diverse, it occurs in a particular situation, under the influence of specific conditions and factors.
Obviously, the task is that both the feelings and the will of the teacher should be formed, first of all, morally, that they should be at the mercy of consciousness, be determined by the social orientation of the teacher’s personality, and therefore it is necessary that all feelings: purposefulness, perseverance, discipline, patience and others, so important in the work of a teacher, were a constant object of self-improvement.
- Platonov K. K. The structure and development of personality. -M.: Science. 1985.-255c.
- Klarin M. V. “Pedagogical technologies in the educational process”. M.: Knowledge, 1981 84 p.
- B. Farberman. “Progressive pedagogical technologies”. Tashkent, 1999. 84 p.
- Selevko G. K. «Modern educational technology». M.: Public Education, 1998.