The family is one of the main tools that ensure interaction between the individual and society, integration and prioritization of their interests and needs. The family gives the person ideas about life goals and values, about what you need to know and how you should behave. Explanations and instructions of parents, their example, the whole way of life in the house, family atmosphere develop habits of behavior and criteria for evaluating good and evil, worthy and unworthy, fair and unfair.
The importance of the family as an institution of education is due to the fact that the child is in it at the most significant period of his life, and by the strength and duration of his impact on the personality, not one of the institutions of education can be compared to the family. The foundations of the child’s personality are laid, and by the time he enrolls in school, he has already formed more than half as a person.
At present, many sciences are studying family problems: economics, law, sociology, demography, psychology, pedagogy, and others. Each of these sciences, in accordance with its subject, reveals certain aspects of its functioning and development. Pedagogy considers the educational function of the family of modern society from the point of view of goals and means, the rights and duties of parents, the interaction of parents in the process of raising children with school and other children's institutions, reveals the reserves and costs of family education and ways of their compensation.
A family is a socially-pedagogical group of people designed to optimally meet the needs for self-preservation (procreation) and self-affirmation (self-esteem) of each of its members. The family creates the concept of home for a person not just as a room where he lives, but as feelings, sensations, where they love, understand, protects.
Family — the most important institution of socialization of the younger generations. It represents a personal environment for the life and development of children, adolescents, young people, the quality of which is determined by a number of parameters of a particular family. These parameters are:
Demographic — family structure (large, including other relatives, including only parents and children; complete or incomplete; one child, little or many children); socio-cultural — the educational level of parents, their participation in society; socio-economic — property characteristics and employment of parents at work; technical and hygienic — living conditions, dwelling equipment, lifestyle features.
Family education — purposeful interaction of senior family members with younger ones, based on love and respect for the child’s personal dignity and honor, involving psychological and pedagogical support, protection and personality formation, taking into account opportunities and in accordance with the values of family and society.
Family education is a complex and multifaceted system of upbringing and education, taking shape in the context of a particular family and by the efforts of parents and relatives. This is a complex and multifaceted system. It is influenced by heredity and biological (natural) health of children and parents, material and economic security, social status, lifestyle, number of family members, place of residence, attitude towards a child. All this is organically intertwined and in each case manifests itself in different ways.
The goal of family education is the formation of personality traits that will help to adapt without difficulty to adulthood, to adequately overcome the difficulties and obstacles encountered on the path of life.
The tasks of family education:
– the creation of maximum conditions for the growth and development of the child; transferring the experience of creating and preserving a family, bringing up children in it and attitude towards elders; to teach children useful applied skills and abilities aimed at self-care and help to relatives.
The content of family education covers all areas: mental, physical, labor, aesthetic, economic and others. A significant place in family education is moral education. First of all, it is the cultivation of such qualities as benevolence, kindness, attention, mercy to people, honesty, hard work. Family and school are the two main and equal subjects of socialization of the individual in the period of childhood and adolescence. The object of impact of teachers can be not only a child in the family, but also adult family members, and the family itself as a whole as a team. The activity of pedagogical groups with a family includes three main components of pedagogical assistance: educational, psychological, mediation, which are inextricably linked. The educational component includes two activities: helping the family in the education and upbringing of children. Assistance in training is aimed at preventing problems arising in the family and shaping the pedagogical culture of parents. The activities of teaching staff provides for the education of parents on various issues of family education:
– pedagogical and socio-psychological preparation of parents for the education of future children; the importance of personal example and the authority of parents in raising children, the role of mother and father, the relationship between them; the relationship of different generations in the family, methods of pedagogical influence on children, the formation of positive relations between children and adults; parenting children in the family, taking into account gender and age; on the psyche of the child; Encouragement and punishment in raising children in the family; Labor education in the family, helping the child in choosing a profession; The organization of the regime of work, rest, study and leisure of children in the family.
Pedagogical assistance is provided primarily by teachers with their parents — through counseling, and with their children — through the creation of special upbringing situations to solve the task of providing timely assistance to the family in order to strengthen it and make the most of its educational potential. The psychological component of pedagogical assistance includes two components: socio-psychological support and correction. Socially — psychological support is aimed at creating a favorable microclimate in the family during a period of short-term crises. The school psychologist can perform this work most effectively. Assistance must be comprehensive: the problem is determined, the interpersonal relations in the family, the situation of the child in it are analyzed. With the help of various techniques, those causes in the family that lead to conflict are identified.
The mediation component of pedagogical assistance includes three components: assistance in organizing, coordinating and informing in matters of family education. Assistance in the organization is aimed at organizing family leisure activities, including: the organization of interest clubs, family holidays, summer holidays and others. Assistance in coordination is aimed at activating various departments and services to jointly resolve the problem of a specific family and the situation of a particular child in it (transfer of a child to a foster family, etc.). Information assistance is aimed at providing families with information on training and education, social protection. Pedagogical skills and knowledge on parenting is formed through the workshops of parents. They can be held at the end of parental lectures and meetings, or as an independent form of work. Workshops for parents provide an opportunity for a full exchange of experience on various aspects of family education. One of the most common forms of mass forms for the formation of the pedagogical culture of parents is school-wide and classroom parent meetings. Unfortunately, they often come down only to a discussion of student behavior and performance, as practice shows, parental meetings can play an important role in the pedagogical education of parents. In the process of parental meetings, it is necessary to adopt joint programs for the formation of the student's personality, to coordinate plans for joint activities of the school and the family for their implementation.
In order to attract the attention of parents, it is necessary to hold conferences for parents, mainly conferences are devoted to the exchange of experiences on raising children in the family. Conference topics should be specific and relevant to parents. Also, counseling for parents, especially individual ones, is valuable in that talking with one-on-one, you can tell about the patient, the innermost, share with problems in raising children, etc. The teacher, together with his parents, should look for methods to eliminate errors and shortcomings. The success of the joint work of the school and parents largely depends on the teacher’s in-depth knowledge of the pupils and their families. The educational potential of the family, the conditions of its life, the teacher, primarily the class teacher, studies not only during the period of the child’s education. It is advisable to use a set of techniques and methods: monitoring the behavior and study of children, educational social activities of parents, visiting families, individual conversations with parents at school, recording information received from the parent community, questioning. No matter how wonderful social upbringing is, where the ultimate purpose is the formation of ideals, the formation of the child’s personality is laid in the family, under the influence of parental love in the name of his future, under the influence of the authority of the parents, family traditions. After all, everything that he sees and hears in the family, he repeats, imitates adults. And this stage of the child’s own actions (namely, actions, not actions) is key to the formation of personality. Thanks to this accomplished action, the child enters the context of social relations, already playing a certain social role. The educational process in the family has no limits, beginning or end. Parents for children is a life ideal, unprotected from children's gaze. The family coordinates the efforts of all participants in the educational process: schools, teachers, and friends. The family creates for the child the model of life into which it is included.
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