By rating deservedly the holding position of types of small manufacturing business and enterprises on meeting the daily needs of the population to food products, especially meat and meat products, it should be noted that technical progress is determined by the development of continuous production lines (systems) which are automated at large enterprises of food and processing and work automatically.
Food production technologies are a system of knowledge about the methods of processing raw materials, materials and semi-finished products with the help of various types of tools. For producing each type of food product, specific set of processing methods, meat raw materials and semi-finished product are used. At the same time, technology as also a science which develops these methods and advances them scientifically. The basis of food technologies is composed from specific operations which consist of set of typical (sampled) processes.
The functional usefulness and effectiveness of a technological equipment system are its main indicators and they are characterized by its labor productivity, the guarantee of achieving high operational productivity and the reliability of the system of the constructive structure. Labor productivity of each line (system) is determined by the amount of this or that kind of product processed or manufactured with its help within a certain period of time. At food machinery the productivity of labor is divided into three types: technical –P, theoretical –Pt and operational –P0 labor productivity. Technical labor productivity is related to a technological process and an equipment design and characterizes the technical opportunity of the line. To determine the technical labor productivity, the amount of the processed or manufactured products, direct working hours of the equipment and additional raw materials and working-hour costs which are necessary for the effective operation of the equipment are taken into account. Additional costs which are necessary for the constructive characteristics of the equipment and they take into account the wastes envisage in technical documents and returned by regulations, defected products, the availability of raw materials losses and additional time which is required for performing auxiliary operations and maintenance equipments. With the value of this indicator, first and foremost, the answer to the question «Can the exact model of the machine be used in the line which will be designed?» is found. During the creation of a new technological line the value of the technical labor productivity is determined by a customer, the initial requirements are specified in the technical task. During designing the technological line on the value of the technical labor productivity the theoretical labor productivities of the line and its component parts are taken into account.
The theoretical labor productivity is calculated according to the amount of products manufactured or processed without taking into account the additional costs for the raw materials and working hours during the direct work period of the equipment. The theoretical labor productivity is considered as important characteristics of any kind of technological machinery and apparatus. With the help of the theoretical labor productivity kinematic, material and heat balance calculations are carried out, the movement speeds of heat carries, working parts and devices are determined, the power consumption of the equipment, working parts and dimensions and many other parameters are determined. For this reason, in the process of drafting the project of the line it is important to analyze the relationship between its given technical labor productivity and designed (theoretical) labor productivity. This relationship is characterized by a C1 coefficient of using the theoretical labor productivity:
Based on the descriptions given above, the theoretical and technical labor productivities can be characterized in the form of the following dependencies:
here, PRn — the nominal (given) amount of the processed or manufactured product; Tn- the nominal (set) direct working hours; - the sum of the specified in the regulations losses of the 1-, 2-,..., k- number ordered components and materials which forming the compositions of the product; – the sum of the spent necessary for the additional operations and maintenance of the equipment at the 1-,2-, …m — number ordered stages of the technological process. Separated values of each losses and the additional time spent can be characterized by the proportions of PRn and Tn measures to their nominal values. In that case, the above (3) equation will have the following appearance:
here – the ratio of the sum of the specified in the regulations losses of 1-,2-,….., n — number ordered raw material components and materials to the PRn measure; –– the ratio of the sum of the specified in the regulations additional time spent at the 1-.2-,…, m — number ordered stages of the technological process to the Tn measure. Then, according to the equation (1) C1 measure can be found as follows:
In its turn, we can change the structure of the second equation (2), which is more comfortable for analysis:
From this equation it is seen that the theoretical and technical labor productivities will have equal values only when there is generally not the specified in the regulations additional losses of raw materials and working hours. To supply the technical labor productivity defined by the amount of that losses and the increase in the expanses, it is necessary to design the line with high theoretical labor productivity. To do this, it is required to increase the values of the intensity of product processing, the speed and size of the working parts, the surface of heat exchanging and other measures. Ultimately, on constant values of the technical labor productivity, unit spending of the overall dimensions of the line and construction materials, the consumption spending of the necessary raw materials, energy, heat and cold should be increased and the line occupying production area should be expanded. Thus, almost all of the technical-economic indicators of the line will decrease. On the contrary, if it is possible to minimize the defined losses of raw materials and working hours during designing process, then the value of the Cl coefficient of the theoretical labor productivity will close to 1. In this time the value of the technical-economic indicators of the line will increase.
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