Air pollution by motor vehicle emissions | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Рубрика: Технические науки

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №48 (234) ноябрь 2018 г.

Дата публикации: 03.12.2018

Статья просмотрена: 15 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Маханов М., Мукабылов Е. О. Air pollution by motor vehicle emissions // Молодой ученый. — 2018. — №48. — С. 30-31. — URL https://moluch.ru/archive/234/54473/ (дата обращения: 21.05.2019).



People were in close contact with the environment during their development. In a highly industrialized society, the situation has suddenly deteriorated since people have interacted with nature. As the volume of this intervention has increased, humanity is now undergoing a variety of threats. There is an anthropogenic threat to the biosphere of the Earth. In the streets and in the place of trees and shrubs, new long-term trees, such as pine, birch, poplar, oak, hawthorn, and more, provide the environment. Leafy plants and trees are good for health, they clean the air, absorb carbon dioxide, and release oxygen into the air. They collect hazardous gases and collect different dust from the air. The only way to clear the air is to upgrade or radically update the production process. The timing of utilization of the waste of chemicals in waste. Along with energy, production, agriculture and construction, cars also have a negative impact on the environment. Nowadays, along with the production of cars, is the main polluting source of the air basin. The main responsibility is on the car. The gases used by the vehicle fall into the lower atmosphere and affect the human respiratory tract. For example, there are about 500,000 cars in the city. Each uses a 200 liter oxygen per 1 kg of gasoline. It means more than the volume of oxygen it absorbs in a day. On average, the car carries 1.5–2 liters of fuel and 20–30 liters of oxygen at 15 kilometers per year. Exhaust gases of vehicles are a mixture of 200 rocks. The compounds include nitrogen, oxygen, dioxide and carbon dioxide, nitrogen and sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide, adsorbed solid particles on the surface, and some of them have carcinogenic properties. The hydrocarbon particles in the car engine are not fully burned, and they are residues of resinous substances. The reason for the high levels of hazardous substances in cars is the low engine speed, old age, lack of engine detectors. It is necessary to regulate emissions of vehicles using the environment. It is an international standard, allowing the use of automobiles on the roads of the country at the civilized level, additional cleaning of exhaust gases contributes to the atmosphere clean-up. According to the Head of State, by 2020, cars in Astana should be transported by gas. Gas is cheaper and cheaper than gasoline.

Nature is a whole system of many balanced connections. The breakdown of these bonds leads to the change in the environment and the metabolism of the metabolism, the biogenic displacement concentration in one population. In today's world, consumers and consumers use more than 100 percent of human energy to meet the biological needs of humans, which is a modern ecological crisis (high levels and anthropogenic load on the environment). Today, human activity is linked to the use of various natural resources, covering many chemical elements. Increasing the technogenic impact on the natural environment causes a number of environmental issues. The most vulnerable are the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and the lithosphere. A number of «changes», such as water or air pollution, can directly affect the body's lifestyle and health. Others have indirect effects, for example: carbon dioxide emissions are observed in building climates, which, in turn, lead to poisoning in the production of foodstuffs, leading to an increase in consumption.

The main cause of air pollution is the full and uniform fuel smoke. Only 15 % will be spent on motor traffic, and 85 % will fly to the air.

The burning chamber of the car engine is also a chemical reactor that synthesizes toxic substances and emits it into the atmosphere. Even atmospheric nitrogen falls into the combustion chamber and becomes toxic nitric acid.

Gas from an internal combustion engine consists of more than 170 harmful components, of which about 160 are hydrocarbon derivatives, which are the main cause of fuel burns. The presence of harmful substances in the resulting gas is ultimately based on the type and condition of the fuel.

The resulting gas is a product from the mechanical parts of the car, and the surface of the road surface is half of the atmospheric emissions in anthropogenic form. More and more motor vehicle and cartridge emissions have been explored. This loss includes harmful components such as nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and carbon dioxide, hydrocarbon, nitrogen and sulfuric acid, solid particles.

The content of the burned gas depends on the type of fuel, oil, engine operating mode, technical condition, etc.

The toxicity of gas separated from the carburet engine is based on the fact that nitrogen oxides with nitric acid and diesel engines are nitric acid and carcass.

The harmful components contained in the surface layer include solid emissions of cyclic hydrocarbon adsorbents (some of which are of a concentrated nature) consisting of lead and black matter.

Toxic gas and nitrous oxide emitted in the form of blue smoke is one of the main reasons for headache, fatigue, irritability, low labor. Sulfur gas is capable of influencing the genetic apparatus that leads to infertility and congenital disability, and all of these factors lead to stress, nervousness, and indifference to the very close people. Larger cities are also commonly affected by diseases of the circulatory system and breathing, infarction, and hypertension. According to experts, the contribution of motor transport into the atmosphere makes 90 % carbon oxide and 70 % of nitrogen oxides. The car also adds metals and other harmful substances to air and soil. The main source of air pollution in the air is exhaust gases, catalytic gases, and fuel evaporation.

Internal combustion engine is a chemical fuel that distinguishes mechanically generated heat-generated internal combustion engines with gasoline, gas, and diesel fuels. By combustion combustion combustion combustion engine combustion combustion combustion combustion combustion combustion combustion combustion combustion combustion combustion (Diesel) combustion combustion combustion. Diesel fuel is a hydrocarbon mixture of boiling water from 200 to 3500cm. Diesel fuels should be self-ignition and have a known viscosity, and have chemical stabilization with minimal smoke and toxicity during combustion. In order to improve these properties of fuel adds anti-smoke and multifunctional additives. Including pollutants. The formation of toxic substances — the nitrogen oxide in the combustion process, which is accompanied by a variety of different ways in the product of full bumping and the engine cylinder. The first group of toxic substances is also associated with the chemical reaction of combustion oxidation, which is in the process of combustion and incineration before the ignition period. The second group of toxic substances is formed during combustion with excess nitrogen in the combustion product. The nitrogen oxidation reaction is thermally sensitive and is directly independent of the fuel oxidation reaction. Therefore, the mechanisms for the formation of the given toxic substances are individually examined. The main toxic emissions of the vehicle include: burning gases, caterer gases and fuel evaporation. The exhaust gas produced by the engine consists of carbon oxide, hydrocarbon, nitrogen oxide, benzene (a) pyrene, aldehydes and carrots. Carter gases are a mixture of the used gas part of the engine oil through the density of the piston rings in the engine crankcase.

In the end, it provides transportation to the material traffic. Transport development is a problem. Each year, 0.2 million people die in traffic accidents around the world, 0.5million are disabled, and 10mn are injured. In the world, about a third of the city goes to the road and to the parking lot. In many ways, the construction of roads leads to an increase in traffic flow, which results in lower average speeds. Along with the increase in the number of automobile fleets, the traffic regulation of technical facilities is complicated, pollution of the road traffic, atmospheric environment, soil, reservoirs and groundwater increases. We live in a good city all over the world, a great natural-climatic condition, surrounded by natural resources, yet we breathe in. If other pollutants in other regions are one of the largest industries, our situation is not quite the same as other industries.

References:

  1. Akbasova A., Begalinov A. Sectoral scientific explanatory dictionary of the Kazakh language terms: Ecology and nature protection. -Almaty, 2007.-8 pages.
  2. Landscaping of villages and cities of Kazakhstan. Baitulin Basics of Ecology. Zhatkhanbayev Zhumakhan. — Almaty, 2003.
  3. Environmental protection measures in the road and road complex. Sagymbayev Gary Kayalashevich. — Almaty, 1995.
  4. Salova T.Yu., Gromova N.Ya., Shkrbak VS, Kurmashev AB Basics of Ecology and Techniques and Techniques Expertise, 2004.


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