Lexicographic theory and practice traditionally relies on the vital the needs of social, industrial, cultural and other fields of activity, at the same time, lexicographical traditions have national specificity.
In August 1713 in Spain under the motto «Limpia, fija y da esplendor» («Cleans, affirms and brings shine "; hereinafter our translation — N.K.) begins his activities Spanish Royal Academy (Real Academia Española, RAE), the main task of which is the compilation and publication of the Castilian Dictionary language. Even then, the Spanish enlighteners saw a threat in excessive borrowing, that in the XVIII century. Concerned the Latin language. Fighting borrowing and became the most important reason for creating not only a dictionary, but also the Academy itself:
«La Academia nace cone de lucha contra las fuerzas que los años que bordean al setecientos habían introducido voces desgraciadas, cultismos atrabiliarios, casi siempre, del latín» [1. P. 93] (“The Academy was established with the aim of combating unnecessary, inappropriate words, gloomy cultisms, which in the eighteenth century borrowed from Latin ").
The Royal Academy justifies its hopes, and from 1726 to 1739 six volumes of the first academic dictionary with a symbolic Dictionary of Authority (Diccionario de Autoridades) . In this work Included are words widely used in Castile, including some regionalism, entries to which were accompanied by references to the well-known a source. One of the main conditions for the introduction of new lexemes in the following Edition of the vocabulary of the Royal Academy (DRAE) is becoming not only ubiquitous and the constant use of a term by carriers Spanish language, but also the conformity of the form of the new word to the so-called character language, i.e. his adaptation. For example, in the preface to the ninth edition DRAE (1843) among others, the following conditions for the introduction of new lexemes are noted:
a) «si se aprecia una adopción constante y sostenida (no temporal o transitoria);
b) preferring adaptación analógica al genio de la lengua (y no en la forma extranjera cruda)” If widespread and prolonged use is common (not temporary and not transitional);
c) borrowing assimilation is preferred the nature of the language (not in a foreign language form)».
In 1927, the Academy released the first edition of the pocket dictionary (Diccionario manual e ilustrado de la lengua española) , which for the first time includes foreign borrowing and examples of their misuse. Similar lexemes are marked with an asterisk and are certainly accompanied by an interpretation with a ghost more suitable spanish equivalent.
At the beginning of the XXI century, the time of total domination of Anglo-Americanisms, a look at the inclusion of borrowing in an academic dictionary providing the right to use a particular term in all registers of the language, a little is changing. Ubiquitous use of the borrowed word in the speech of speakers Spanish is still the main criterion, but the problem the adaptation of anglicisms is no longer a stumbling block in the matter their inclusion in the 22nd edition of DRAE (2001), and then published in 2014 the last, 23rd edition. Spanish women's fashion magazines are interesting material for studying the mechanisms and ways of adapting English borrowing. Considering English borrowings denoting wardrobe items and accessories In the women's fashion magazines, we have identified the 30 most common Anglicism and conducted a study of their lexicographical reflection.
Of the selected for the analysis of 30 Anglicisms in the latest edition of DRAE listed only 12, namely: bermudas “bermuda shorts”, biquini “bikini swimsuit”, blazer “Blazer, club jacket”, body “body”, cárdigan “cardigan”, jersey “sweater”, look “Appearance, image”, polo “polo shirt”, short “shorts”, esmoquín “tuxedo”, top «T-shirt, T-shirt» and the new Anglicism jean «jeans».
Some of these terms have already undergone graphic adaptation.
(cárdigan, esmoquín) and have long been used in the speech of the Spaniards. Other borrowing are recorded in the dictionary in the original English form (look, short, blazer). Dictionary article to the above Anglicisms, may be accompanied by a litter voz inglesa «anglicism» or del ingl. «Comes from English»..., for which follows the English word source: look (Voz ingl.); esmoquín (Del ingl. smoking). Borrowing options are also noted, such as usado más en plural con mismo significado que en singular «can be used in the plural including in the same meaning as the one ”: Jean (Del ingl. jeans.).
- m. pantalón vaquero. U. m. en pl. con el mismo significado que en sing. As for such borrowings as bermudas, biquini, cárdigan, they are not marked by the above method, the reason for which was their origin. These terms come from proper names. Bermudas «Bermuda» received the name in honor of Bermuda, where at the beginning of XX century. Such The shorts were part of the uniform of the British military, and later became very popular among the civilian population. While working on the new, 23rd edition of the vocabulary of the Royal Academy in the electronic version of DRAE could be found out about the fate of look and short anglicisms, marked as «an article submitted to the exclusion of the new twenty-third edition of the dictionary. However, borrowing data was not excluded, and Moreover, the dictionary has been supplemented with a new Anglicism jean, which, in our opinion, is a fair decision, since these three borrowings have long been have become an integral part of not only the language of glossy magazines, but of all media texts about fashion.
Uses dictionaries, as a rule, are not guided by such strict rules. In the matter of entering this or that borrowing, like academic publications.
The Dictionary of Modern Spanish (Diccionario de uso del español actual Clave)  included unadapted foreign words, widely used in Spanish. In addition, in the dictionary entries to similar borrowings give their Spanish equivalent (if any) or some recommendations are given for its use. The authors of the dictionary note that the speaker himself must decide whether to use these terms or not, and also choose the method of borrowing in writing. In clave besides
Already considered Anglicisms can be found interpretation of the word leggings «leggings».
It is curious that in English the words jeans and shorts in the meaning of «jeans» and “shorts” are in the plural form, as indicated by the ending -s In the Spanish dictionaries, these lexemes are fixed in the singular with the label that they can be used in the plural. And only in the dictionary uses the word jeans in one form, despite the widespread use of both variants of these tokens.
Absorta en la atmósfera, Eli con jersey y shorts, PRADA y sandalias de goma, TODʹS. (Telva junio 2014) Este verano, más que nunca, hay un a opción para ir a la playa: los monos con short o falda corta. (InStyle agosto 2014)
Lexicographic works dedicated to anglicisms in Spanish, relatively little. The Anglicism Dictionary stands out among the earliest. (Diccionario de Anglicismos) R. H. Alfaro , published in 1950 in Panama. Disadvantage of this work is that, considering mainly anglicisms, used in Latin America, the author makes no distinction between their use in the Pyrenean and Latin American national Spanish language options. Dictionary entries by R.Kh. Alfaro accompanies the brave comments aimed at censuring excessive use borrowing. In addition to lexemes, the author cites some theoretical aspects, associated with anglicisms, such as «proper names», «prefixes» and Despite this “harsh” tone of statements, this work has won praise of the National Academies of the Spanish Language and many borrowings, reviewed R. H. Alfaro, included in subsequent editions of DRAE.
It is also necessary to note the work of A. Fernandez Garcia “Anglicisms in Spanish language” (Anglicismos en español) , published in 1970 as a historical a dictionary where the origin and evolution of a large borrowing numbers. Deserve the attention and work of the outstanding Spanish linguist Emilio Lorenzo, in particular his fundamental work called «Spanish Anglicism» (Anglicismos hispánicos) (1996) . Besides, English borrowing has also been considered in the dictionaries of foreign words, for example, in the work of H. H. Alsugarai Aguirre «Dictionary of Foreign Words» (Diccionario de extranjerismos)  provides an extensive list of borrowings half of which are anglicisms.
In 1997, the New Anglicism Dictionary was published (Nuevo diccionario de anglicismos), compiled by F. Rodriguez González and A. Lillo Bouades , who was reissued in 2009. In the preface to the publication, the authors note that in first of all they focused on the general public, and not only on etymologists and other scientists, as a result of which the main core of the dictionary was obvious anglicisms («patentes»). Also in this dictionary were included some borrowings that native spanish speakers already have not recognized as such, some examples of pseudo-Anglicism and exoticism.
Each dictionary entry in addition to the interpretation of the word contains data on its pronunciation, origin, some grammatical indicators (gender, number), stylistic comments about the use of the word. In addition, information about the frequency of use of one or another anglicism (what distinguishes this work from similar ones), the scope of its use, as well as given quotes from various sources in which this or that borrowing appears.
Spanish journalists, in turn, do not seek to listen to voices linguistic scholars, and they prefer anglicisms today, even without thinking about the correctness or necessity of their use. Also little they also care about readers who are far from always able to appreciate the “linguistic delights «of modern authors. The fact that even the most modern Spanish dictionaries, like academic, usus dictionaries, so, and various «style books» are useless for the target audience of similar publications, and they are constantly being updated and replenished.
- Alcoba S. Discreción y uso. Anglicismos, DRAE y lengua periodística. Lingua Americana. No. 19 2006. Págs. 88–110.
- Alfaro Ricardo J. Diccionario de anglicismos. Madrid: Gredos, 1970.
- Alzugaray Aguirre J. J. Diccionario de extranjerismos. Madrid: Dossat, 1985.
- Diccionario de Autoridades de la Real Academia Española. Madrid: Gredos, 2002.
- Diccionario de la Real Academia Española 23a edición. URL: http://www.rae.es/ (accessed 10 January 2016).