Expansion of speech competence on the base different types of reading | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Авторы: ,

Рубрика: Педагогика

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №41 (227) октябрь 2018 г.

Дата публикации: 16.10.2018

Статья просмотрена: 17 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Гозиева, Н. Р. Expansion of speech competence on the base different types of reading / Н. Р. Гозиева, Ш. А. Базарбаева. — Текст : непосредственный // Молодой ученый. — 2018. — № 41 (227). — С. 168-170. — URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/227/53091/ (дата обращения: 25.01.2022).



The question of the types of reading is one of the most developed in the methodology of teaching a foreign language. At the same time, this question has many controversial and not fully established aspects: in some cases different names are used to denote the same phenomenon, some classifications suffer from being built on an insufficient basis of division. So, some authors divide reading into types according to their psychological nature, psychological peculiarities of thinking processes: translation-non-translational, analytical-synthetic; other authors — under the terms of their implementation: independent and independent, prepared unprepared; according to the style of the reader: extensive-intensive, etc. Currently, the classification of reading offered by S. К. Folomkina, on studying, introductory, viewing and search.

The main unit in this classification of reading is in the form of the process: reading aloud and reading to oneself. These types of reading differ, first of all, in their mechanisms: reading aloud implies the activity of perceptual and externally expressed articulation units of speech, reading for oneself — the activity of perceptive level and internal articulation. These types of speech are different in communicative tasks and serve in the process of learning various goals. Reading out loud has the communicative task of communicating information, reading about himself — receiving information. These types of reading also perform various educational functions. The first is a means of learning, the second is the purpose of learning. Only a variety of types of reading used will provide a real mastery of the reading mechanism and understanding of what is read.

Reading out loud. Reading out loud is very important for learning a foreign language in general and the process of reading in particular. Reading aloud allows you to master the sound system of the language. It reinforces the ability to sound recoding of signals, both at the level of a letter, and at the level of a word, a sentence of a text. Reading out loud is a technique of “shaping” the phrasal stereotype of the reader.

A subtype of reading out loud can be reading a text with unfinished difficulties, with a completely removed difficulties, with partially removed difficulties; reading prepared, partially prepared and unprepared; explained, partially explained and unexplained. At the same time, by role in the educational process, by location and by organizational forms of work, reading aloud is subdivided into training and control, classroom, home, laboratory, individual and group.

Reading material can be programmed or not. For example, at the initial stage of training, it would be especially useful to read aloud with the difficulties removed: prepared, training, classy, individual and choral, free of translation, synthetic. At the middle stage, it is good to read aloud selectively unprepared material in advance, with unfounded difficulties. Laboratory, programmed reading out loud is especially useful. At the middle stage of learning, reading aloud serves mainly as a control and expressive reading. The goal of learning to read in a foreign language at school is to read in private, or quiet reading. In the literature, reading aloud is considered as a necessary link, the first important step in mastering students to read to themselves. Learning to read in a foreign language should take place while relying on the River motor analyzer. Therefore, when learning to read about yourself, reading aloud is its initial and obligatory stage. Inner speech manifests its originality depending on the kind of speech activity that forms it. In the process of reading aloud, the selection of individual elements occurs as successive landmarks, by which the execution of individual operations is directed and controlled.

The commonality of these two types of reading also appears in the fact that they are carried out using the same mechanisms of speech activity: likelihood of forecasting, operational and long-term memory, comprehension. However, in the functioning of these speech mechanisms, there is a difference that is essential for the method of teaching these types of reading. First of all, these types of reading are distinguished by a unit of perception. When reading to myself this unit is more.

Consequently, the prediction when reading out loud is slower and more difficult.

Thus, reading aloud contributes to the formation of the skill of reading to oneself, fulfilling the role of a method (conditions) of mastering the latter.

At the same time, reading aloud acts as an independent type of speech activity, having its own linguistic or semantic tasks. It is used:

– to master the alphanumeric patterns of the language being studied;

– to develop the ability to combine the perceived elements of the sentence with synonyms, together to pronounce the components of the syntagma and correctly design it in terms of rhythm and intonation;

– to accelerate the pace of reading (bring it to the speed of speaking);

– to develop the ability to predict;

– for training and control of accuracy of understanding.

Reading out loud now in school is preceded by an oral passage of the material (oral anticipation), so it is close in terms of its characteristics to oral speech. Especially it is necessary to pay attention to the transfer of expressiveness of oral speech to reading. And back, expressive reading contributes to the expressiveness of oral speech. Expressive reading is also hygienic, because it contributes to the development of hearing, voice, teaches proper breathing and voice possession. Reading, you need to know where to pause and what impression it will make on the listener.

Urubnikov L. M. in his method of teaching reading aloud, he suggests a transition from a developed external speech form to curtailing external speech and a gradual transition to reading to oneself. They developed five modes of student work.

In the first mode, work was done on the graphic designation of intonation-markup. The purpose of this mode is to give students a way to consciously restore intonation while reading aloud. Thus, students form the skill of identifying intonation in the text, which contributes to the proper sounding of the graphic matter of the text.

The second mode includes collective reading. The purpose of the regime is to consolidate the skill of normative expressive reading by combining markup with normative expressive reading of a narrator. The material is not only individual sentences, but also small texts consisting of several sentences.

The third mode is pair reading. Here, the communicative nature of reading, its orientation and appeal to listeners is already taken into account. The work is organized on the material of short texts consisting of several sentences, which are gradually increasing in volume. The correct transmission of the semantic content of the text in the pair reading contributes both to its correct understanding and mastering the ways of its expression, which prepares reading for oneself.

Reading about yourself is the kind of reading that a student must complete in school. Teaching students to read unadapted literature, newspaper and popular science articles is an important task facing the English teacher.

The target setting, or the communicative task, determines the division of reading into viewing, search, familiarization and learning that is widespread in modern methods.

1. The ability to view the source, information to get the most general idea of ​​its content: the student must identify the topic of work, identify the main issues addressed in it, and also determine whether the work is of interest to the reader. In the event that he comes to the conclusion that the information he needs is missing, the reading of the work is stopped, and the student, often not reading the rest of the previous passage, proceeds to the next. If the reader gives a positive assessment of one or another source, then either the nature of the reading itself changes, or he takes a relevant section to note in order to read it more carefully and in depth later.

Reading — viewing printed texts in search of certain data is of a similar nature. The reader knows in advance that they are contained in this text, the chapter of the book, and his task is only to find the necessary material.

With this type of reading, the student does not set himself the goal of using the information contained in the text. He should only select it and understand in the most general terms what this work is about.

References:

  1. Breigina M. E. Course in foreign languages in high school. Moscow, 1971.
  2. Vaysburd M. L. Learning to understand a foreign language text when reading as a search activity // Foreign languages at school. No. 2, 1997.
  3. Vaysburd M. L. Tasks of teaching to achieve success in a lesson // Foreign languages at school. No. 5, 1978.
  4. Halperin I. R. Text as an object of linguistic research. Moscow 1981.
  5. Gordievskikh O. V. Organization of teaching reading with a dictionary // Foreign languages at school. No. 1, 1997.


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