Humanistic teachings of Abai | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Автор:

Рубрика: Философия

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №26 (212) июнь 2018 г.

Дата публикации: 01.07.2018

Статья просмотрена: 9 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Жумагулов, А. А. Humanistic teachings of Abai / А. А. Жумагулов. — Текст : непосредственный // Молодой ученый. — 2018. — № 26 (212). — С. 200-203. — URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/212/51310/ (дата обращения: 05.07.2020).



Spiritual-moral education is important for the upbringing of the young generation according to the program of the «Spiritual Renaissance» of our President Nursultan Nazarbayev.

In educating our people, our folklore, chronicles, heroes and poems, historical legends, etc. masterfully learned. Due to this, many generations of brave generation have been brought up and brought up.Thus, the selfish morality of the Kazakh people has emerged. Abay, the great thinker, developed and taught this doctrine. It is important to bring examples from the Kazakh ethno-pedagogy in the education of humanity, the words of the western and eastern thinkers and examples of enlightenment.

It is not possible to bring up a moral education without education.

What Is Mind Control?

Many thinkers have been dealing with this problem since ancient times. For example, ancient Hindus, such as the Vedas inscriptions, in ancient China, such as Lao-Tzu, Confucius, have left wonderful works of humanity. For example, Confucius says, «A wise person does not do to others what he does not want to be done to him. "

The basis of the theory of Confucius is love.

«The basis of goodness is to love people», he says. (Journal «Legend». 9, 2012)

Abai's moral doctrine is in his «Book of Words» and verses.

Main part

Five positive qualities of Abay's moral doctrine

Proud of the great thinker Abai " Do not boast prematurely not finding science of» stay away from anything — say:

Demand, labor, deep thought,

Do it with grace, grace

Five good deeds.

Astonish, a liar, a booby,

Lentil and waste money

If you know about the five enemies, «he writes.

Let's look at these qualities Abay said.

1) Demand

Demand is the desire of the human being to know and recognize the environment from childhood. As much as he can, he strives to do what he likes. The aspiration to grow and achieve its goals. For example, study or work and more. You will not be able to get anything that you do not need. A wise man Abai clearly shows the importance of the demand. Our people have also left a proverb «Talented Man Shine». The demand is closely related to the will of the person. A strong person will never forfeit his own will and will achieve it. Such people are in history. Take, for example, Lomonosov. Born in a family of fishermen, he was admitted to study at the age of 19 and thanks to his vigorous will he became an insight into his time. So let us be as demanded by every student as Lomonosov demand.

2) Labor

Labor is the most important, decisive factor in human life. Since the creation of man, he lived and lived in labor. There are enough people's wisdom words and proverbs about the importance of work.For example, "", «Labor is everything to lose», «If you work, you will not lie». (Abay).

Whatever the socio-economic formation, labor has been and will continue to be a promising locomotive of society. Through labor, the society has evolved, and culture and civilization have been achieved. Work is also important in the individual's life. Through labor, a person can study, study, become mentally and professionally. Certainly, here we should talk about honest work. «Whatever you do, you are going to cut it up» — people's proverb. That is, when you work, you see the fruit.

The place of work in a person's life is unique. There is a pronouncement «Labor — to win everything». Many difficulties in life are overcome by many. Each student should be able to adapt quickly to life after graduation. In this regard, the role of profession in the school, the role of profession will be unusual. On the subject of Labor F. Gulen's book, «Ukiliy Umit», is described in detail, very well. (F. Gulen's «Ukiliy Umit» A. 2011)

3) Deep thought (Tafakkur or reflection)

Tafakkur literally means to think on a subject deeply, systematically, and in great detail. In this context, in signifies reflection, which is the heart’s lamp, the soul’s food, the spirit of knowledge, and the essence and light of the Islmaic way of life.

Human beings are constantly thinking. If I drink about myself, about other things, what I have about money, and if I'm dressed, etc. as they say. This is the material side of the problem. In thinking deeply, a person must think not only the material world, but also the spiritual world. Only after a certain period of time will a person be spiritually and physically mature. It is in harmony with society and nature. Deep minding draws closer to faith.

Deep-heartedness should not be understood alone. Deep reasoning is not always an empty idea. A person is to analyze the past of his life, to judge today, to predict his future. An in-depth analysis of errors and omissions means that you do not repeat mistakes in the future.

When you think deeply about you, your spiritual eyes will be opened and awakened before you can sleep. Man already has unavailable options. He has great achievements in his specialty. A person is spiritually mature. Without it, spiritual revival is impossible.

4) Satisfaction

Enjoyment is one of the elements that shapes human morale. When the feeling of self-satisfaction decreases, the consumer's appetite for appetite increases. The unpleasantness of man's self-esteem is in itself a desire. Money, for example, is the end of the world's accumulation. Today it is 1 million, tomorrow is 2 million, and the next day is even more. By doing so, it gives a depth of depth to the depths of a pit. On the same road, he may come across various kinds of dishonesty, even crimes.

Therefore, our people pay great attention to the quality of satisfaction. «Satisfying the appetite», says the folk wisdom.

On page 203 of the Hadith Collection, He says, «Men and women, sons and daughters, all of them are treasures of gold and silver, breasts of their own kind, and food of animals and fields. In fact, this is only a wonder of the life of this world. The most beautiful (ie, the eternal home where the soul finds souls) is near to Allah. (Ali-Imran, verse 14)»

Our Prophet (pbuh) said: «Do not covet the world, and you will be loved by Allah. Do not look at the hands of the people, and people will love you too ". (See, page 210.)

5) Grace

The feeling of grace is a relationship of forgiveness, sympathy, kindness, love, affection. These feelings are a special gift of nature to man. Grace is a quality that saves the world from cruelty and indifference. Without mercy, people would be cruel and unkind. It is important to cultivate such qualities as kindness, mercy, and forgiveness.

In the book Mudross of Love, he says: «In modern science and practice, there are many errors and misconceptions about the meaning of philosophy. This error is due to the current etymology of the word «philosophy». From the familiar philosophers, «What Is Philosophy? When he asks what it means, it is Greek-loving, sophia-wise. So philosophy is to love wisdom. " In fact, many people do not know that Pythagoras, the founder of the Western philosophical tradition, said, «Philosophy is the wisdom to love». " To love wisdom! Wisdom to Love and Love Wisdom. " In contrast to both, «says A. Jalevich.

In this chapter, we find excellent examples of how to use the power of love. There are many difficulties in life, such as illness, and so on. There are solid, convincing conclusions that you can overcome negative (love) phenomena.

It is the wisdom to love parents (such as the child), the child's parents, the love of the animals.

If love fades, it will be less. Where there is less concern, war, violence, crime, and so on. negative phenomena increase. Hence, we have to live with the wisdom of loving our society.

Kindness, mercy is a fruit of wisdom. It is important to discipline such qualities as charity, grace, forgiveness.

Abai's moral doctrine is five qualities

1) Supper

Forbearance, outrageous gossip is a grave sin to humanity. In the Qur'an, it is said that the punishment of the hadeeth is severe («Do not be distressed and do not love one who loves to eat your brother's meat.) So fear Allah " (Surat al-Hujurat, 12 verse). [A. Nogaev, «Seek In The Wisdom», p. 2013].

It is said that gut is a grave sin as if eating human flesh. The wickedness of the Ghaib (unseen) is that of combining fuel into people and clashing with one another. What is Gaiath? It's a shame to speak of a person's physical, physical, emotional, physical, emotional, and mental disabilities. Even though it does not speak in words, it is a sign of disbelief, and it is also obvious. It is also within the scope of this sin that we express our dissatisfaction with anyone by writing. [A. Nogaev, «Seek In The Wisdom», p. 2013].

2) False

False witnessing and false testimony are a great sin for humanity. In what religion, in every society, liars are strictly punished. Such people are severely criticized by Islam. «You do not know (and you) are not related to deer (ie, never knew you did not know what I saw, heard heard say). In fact, the members of the body, such as the ears, eyes and heart all bear responsibility before (Allah) "(verse 36 of Surah Ïsra). «Avoid Falsehood» (30: Surah Al-Hajj). «Believers in Allah do not testify to falsehood» (Surat al-Furqan, 72: 1). The lying folk also condemns the deception. People's proverbs and sayings such as «The tail of the lie is one stop ", " The truth is not broken, the lie is not covered ", «The liar is against the lips, the liar is liar ", «The deceiver is not the word. According to the hadith, it is permitted only to reconcile two hostile people and to reconcile a two-sided reconciliation.

3) Gluttony

Courage is one of the most distasteful traits in man. «Be careful not to turn your face away from people on the face of the earth. Indeed, Allah does not like vantards. He throw his weight around at all "(Surah Luqman, verse 18). "... Indeed, Allah does not like at all that is forgotten drugs» (Surah Qasas, verse 76). From Abu Xwrayra (RA) reached the hadith of the Prophet (c.ğ.s.): «The Great Creator, Allah Almighty: Мajesty, the glory of my hanging (clothing). Haughtiness are my garments. " Whoever seeks one of these two against me, I will punish him with great sorrow. " It is worth noting here: Hassiness is the nature of Allah.Like this, proud man become of this crime can be fought only by Allah Almighty qualities. This, of course, is a grave sin (Hadith Collection, Imam Nawawi, p. 271).

The conclusion is: Never boast about your wealth or any other advantage. Do not boast that you have achieved everything through myself, and I did all that. Everything that has been achieved is realized by God. Because from Abu Xwrayra (RA): «Messenger (c.ğ.s.):" Everything that begins with no praise and thanksgiving without saying «Alhamdulillah» is fleeing, «he said. " (Imam Nawawi, Hadith Collection, p. 500).

4) Lazy

It is one of the most unpleasant traits that a lover can lead to. People's concept, both in religious books and in scientific literature, is characterized as an enemy of humanity. In any society, libel and slander are strictly condemned. The reason is that the lips become a society. It also sets an example for others. Breasts do not want to work with their sweat. Therefore, they will be involved in crime. Further, they tend to be immoral. Among the people in the society, the pranks are dishonest, and they say, «lame lame». In the book of Ukili Umit, an Islamic scholar, Gulen's book titled «laziness» is also described as «pleasurable»: «Hatefulness is to hate labor, to be unemployed, to overcome the pain, to be lazy underneath, to keep up your mind, to rest, passion. An expression of self-denial or lust for the laziness of the world and the desire for purity and sexual pleasure " — says. (p. 132–133). The author further goes on to say about laziness and gives a sociological-psychological character. "... As a result, society will fall ill, if consists of lazy person parasites, and become colonized by others», he said. (p. 139). «Even the most enjoyable will gradually make a person tire out. Hence, laziness, fierce sufferings, and great stress. " " Movemen are the symbol of revival and rebirth. The good will of the laborer. The only one who works is the soul. It is a feeling of gratitude, not a life. " (p. 152).

5) Free beef is faster

Here our Abai is not a waste of time, and it does not mean to let the ritual. Indeed, are we fully aware of the value of everything we have? Splendor and finesse are a waste of time. «Well», a collection of Hadith states on page 233: «They (A llah's true slaves) does not mean a loss when it comes to spending money you do not. Both committed to the environment " (Fwrqan Sura, verse 67). This section of the Hadiths on pages 215, 237 gives examples of the importance of avoiding wastefulness. It would be a good idea to have all this, especially the youth. This loss of the world's «so as» not to räswa hadith: «The Messenger (c.ğ.s.):" Verily, Allah is pleased with three different actions, and you can not be happy with the other three types of deeds. Etkenderiñe worship Allah, so anyone Whosoever satellite qospağandarıña and stick them onto the network (religion), will be divided grateful begenderiñe. Also, you do not like what you have to say about your frustration, your many questions that you can not ask for, and how quickly you spend the money on your possessions. " — said: (See p. 622). Another hadith states: «Do not waste water unless you live by the sea». And what has been said has not yet eliminated its relevance. Every day, many things, food, water, etc. It is well-known that it is wasting. It would be desirable to learn from this.

Conclusion

At present, moral and intellectual education is topical. Because mankind has achieved remarkable advances in civilization, science, and technology. If the right side of this human mind is (positive), its left side (negative and also appeared. Mankind had to balance this positive and left (negative) balance and maintain balance. But, unfortunately, this balance has not been maintained in most cases. As a result, when issues (problems) was not timely. It has increased global issues has become a (global) problems. For example, environmental issues, the issue of nuclear weapons, enough to issues such as spiritual decline (degeneration). One of the reasons for the spiritual downturn in modern society is the lack of balance between education and science, and the balance of education. In other words, more attention was paid to science and education, and there was insufficient attention in the educational work. Al-Farabi, our great grandfather, also said, «Education without education is the enemy of mankind». Because of not addressing these issues, human society is exposed to many natural and man-made emotions. Balance of balance between nature and human society has been broken. That's why it is necessary to rebuild this balance. To do this, we need to follow the wisdom of the world's three great religions and the works of the wise men.

In recent years many books have been published about many wise men, famous people, and their wise words. We believe it is important to pay particular attention to universal human values. Here are some values:

1) Istina (Satya) — Truth;

2) righteousness (dharma) — morality;

3) (Shanti) Peace;

4) Love (Prem);

5) Nenasilie (ahimsa) — not to show strength

(A. Zhalevich «The Sowing Force of Mankind» p. 55, M.). 2014).

And on the subject of the Seven Duniu errors, he says:

1) Богатство без работы — the wealth of the unemployed

2) Udovolstvye bez sovesti — it is a passion without arrogance

3) The sake of character is characteristic of nature without education

4) Science Without Humanity — Science Without Science

5) commerce without morality

6) Worship without sacrifice

7) Politics without principle (76–77 pages).

Most popular thinker scholar, religious activist Fethullah Gulen said: «The firstborn of a human being is inclined to good and evil. These are the qualities that both engender. It is through this that the Creator has made man equal in proportion to wherever he may be. There are many different types of senses and attitudes. Almighty Allah has placed human beings in such a way that they have the same ability. The key question is how to properly and upbuild these abilities. For example, each person has the ability to self-management, this could enhance the ability of people of all living creatures ahead» (Fethullah Gulen», Prism-1», on page 77, A. 2009).

«... Development and perfection of morality are accomplished through the destruction of their souls. When he is purified from the conscience, he gives it to his sexual immorality».

Hence, the expansion of spiritual knowledge is a result of the personal preparation and energy of each. And this is dependent on the actions of a mature human. Therefore, the expansion of spiritual knowledge should be regarded as the result of everybody's personal training and endeavors. (Fethullah Gulen, Prizma-1, pp. 182–183, A. 2009).

The next task is to propagate the human moral teachings to the people.

References:

  1. F. Gülen — «Prizma-1», A. 2009.
  2. F. Gülen is «Ukili Umit», A. 2011.
  3. Imam Nawawi — Collection of Hadiths. 2011.
  4. A. Zhalevich — «The Greatest Moody», M. 2014.
  5. A. Nogaev — «Seek In The Wisdom», A. 2013.
  6. Legend of Adam magazine, № 9, 2012.
  7. A. Auezkhanuly — «Be a good man everywhere», А. 2015


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