Importance of quality for construction projects | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Автор:

Рубрика: Технические науки

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №20 (206) май 2018 г.

Дата публикации: 21.05.2018

Статья просмотрена: 238 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Ли, Цзялэ. Importance of quality for construction projects / Цзялэ Ли. — Текст : непосредственный // Молодой ученый. — 2018. — № 20 (206). — С. 154-156. — URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/206/50606/ (дата обращения: 25.09.2020).



Construction projects are always expected to create a balance between cost, time and quality. Quality Control is important for your construction work, Quality measures the quality characteristics of a unit, differences between the results obtained and the desired results in order to make decisions which will correct any differences. One way of controlling quality is based on the inspection or verification of finished products. It is possible to have high quality and low cost, but at the expense of time, and conversely to have high quality and a fast project, but at a cost. High quality is not always the primary objective for the client; however, it is extremely important to a successful project. An appropriate level of quality could be determined during all phases of the construction project. Specially, construction and commissioning are two critical phases where the project could impact by its operability, availability, reliability, and maintainability of a facility. Ultimately, a facility with a good construction quality program and minimal defects is more likely to have a smooth and trouble free transition into the commissioning and qualification phase of the project. This creates a great potential for quality improvements in construction projects, as the poor quality could negatively effect to project failures. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to investigate the importance of quality for construction project success. Quality is the symbol of human civilization, and with the progress of human civilization, quality control will play an incomparable role in the business. It can be said that if there is no quality control, there is no economic benefit. Construction projects are an extremely complex process, involving a wide range.

Keywords: quality, construction projects, economy, importance

Строительные проекты будут обеспечивать баланс между стоимостью, временем и качеством. Контроль качества важен для ваших строительных работ. Качество измеряет качественные характеристики единицы, различия между полученными результатами и желаемыми результатами, чтобы принимать решения, которые позволят исправить любые различия. Один из способов контроля качества основан на проверке или проверке готовой продукции. Возможно высокое качество и низкая стоимость, но за счет времени и, наоборот, высокое качество и быстрый проект, но по себестоимости. Высокое качество не всегда является основной целью для клиента; однако это чрезвычайно важно для успешного проекта. Соответствующий уровень качества может быть определен на всех этапах проекта строительства. В частности, строительство и ввод в эксплуатацию — это два критических этапа, когда проект может повлиять на его работоспособность, доступность, надежность и ремонтопригодность объекта. В конечном счете, объект с хорошей программой качества строительства и минимальными дефектами, скорее всего, обеспечит плавный и бесперебойный переход на этап ввода в эксплуатацию и квалификацию проекта. Это создает большой потенциал для улучшения качества строительных проектов, поскольку низкое качество может отрицательно сказаться на неудачах проекта. Поэтому целью этого исследования является исследование важности качества для успеха проекта строительства. Качество — это символ человеческой цивилизации, и с развитием человеческой цивилизации контроль качества будет играть несравненную роль в бизнесе. Можно сказать, что если нет контроля качества, нет никакой экономической выгоды. Строительные проекты — чрезвычайно сложный процесс с широким диапазоном.

Ключевые слова: качество, строительные проекты, экономика, значение.

Introduction: Poor quality in construction projects is a common phenomenon in the world. Further, stated that the satisfaction of quality level in the construction projects has not been achieved and, it is a serious problem. However, most of the countries have been evolved to implement quality standards to ensure construction quality. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the importance of quality for construction project success. Hence, the purpose of this research is to determine the importance of quality for construction project success. The framework of quality for construction project success is developed accordingly. Quality control is a process employed to ensure a certain level of quality in a product or service. It may include whatever actions a business deems necessary to provide for the control and verification of certain characteristics of a product or service. The basic goal of quality control is to ensure that the products, services, or processes provided meet specific requirements and are dependable, satisfactory, and fiscally sound, Quality can be defined as meeting the legal, aesthetic and functional requirements of a project. Requirements may be simple or complex, or they may be stated in terms of the end result required or as a detailed description of what is to be done. However, the quality is obtained if the stated requirements are adequate, and if the completed project conforms to the requirements [1]. Some design professionals believe that quality is measured by the aesthetics of the facilities they design. definition of quality is based on such issues as how well a building blends into its surroundings, a building's psychological impacts on its inhabitants, the ability of a landscaping design to match the theme of adjacent structures, and the use of bold new design concepts that capture people's imaginations. Quality can also be defined from the view point of function, by how closely the project conforms to its requirements. The concept of quality management is to ensure efforts to achieve the required level of quality for the product which are well planned and organized. However, in the construction industry, quality can be defined as meeting the requirements of the designer, constructor and regulatory agencies as well as the owner [2].

Application of quality in construction industry: quality control involves the examination of a product, service, or process for certain minimum levels of quality. The goal of a quality control team is to identify products or services that do not meet a company’s specified standards of quality. If a problem is identified, the job of a quality control team or professional may involve stopping production temporarily. Depending on the particular service or product, as well as the type of problem identified, production or implementation may not cease entirely. From the perspective of a construction company, quality management in construction projects should mean maintaining the quality of construction works at the required standard so as to obtain customers’ satisfaction that would bring long term competitiveness and business survival for the companies. Further, the adoption of quality in construction industry has been promoted in some literature. The application of ISO standards has received much attention from researchers. quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) are mostly used in construction. The quality control procedure in construction projects is based on tender documents, specifications, working drawings etc. Therefore, the pre tender stage quality and standards of the work should be properly maintained. Therefore, it is important to maintain quality control of the building projects from the inception of its design stage up to the completion of construction including the maintenance period. Quality Assurance (QA) is a program covering activities necessary to provide quality in the work to meet the project requirements. QA involves establishing project related policies, procedures, standards, training, guidelines, and system necessary to produce quality. QA provides protection against quality problems through early warnings of trouble ahead. Such early warnings play an important role in the prevention of both internal and external problems. On the other hand, Quality Control (QC) is the specific implementation of the QA program and related activities. Effective QC reduces the possibility of changes, mistakes and omissions, which in turn result in fewer conflicts and disputes [3]. The design professionals and constructors are responsible for developing an appropriate program for each project to enhance the project quality.

Importance of quality for construction projects: Quality control (QC) is the part of quality management that ensures products and service comply with requirements. It is a work method that facilitates the measurement of the quality characteristics of a unit, compares them with the established standards, and analyses the differences between the results obtained and the desired results in order to make decisions which will correct any differences. A construction project in its life span goes through different phases. The main phases of a project can be described as: conceptual planning, feasibility study, design, procurement, construction, acceptance, operation and maintenance. Quality is one of the critical factors in the success of construction projects. Quality of construction projects is linked with proper quality management in all the phases of project life cycle. Design and construction are the two important phases of project life cycle which affect the quality outcome of construction projects significantly. Further, quality of construction projects can be regarded as the fulfillment of expectations of the project participants by optimizing their satisfaction. It is because, since the quality outcomes of the projects are not according to required standards, faulty construction takes place. Further, the errors on construction projects occur frequently and can be costly for the contractors and owners of constructed facilities [4]. In fact, 6–15 % of construction cost is found to be wasted due to rework of defective components detected late during construction and 5 % of construction cost is wasted due to rework of defective components detected during maintenance. Hence, quality has become one of the most important competitive strategic tools which many construction organizations have realized it as a key to develop their building products in supporting the continuing success.

The responsibility of quality control in construction: In construction of any particular thing the quality of the material we are using should be of good quality according to the products need.

Responsibility is on the quality inspectors to take a check regularly on the material and its quality so that the product could withstand under certain pressure and forces offered over it.

In construction the quality of the material required first undergo certain inspection which are needed then only it is further approved for next steps.

Cost of poor quality: Construction projects are always expected to create a balance between cost, time and quality. Even though, improving quality is not always the major objective of the project; the poor quality could create cost to organization. The cost of poor quality refers to the costs associated with providing poor quality product or service. The cost due to failure, appraisal and prevention are three major cost categories that could be directed by poor quality. failure cost could be occurred as internal and external failures. Internal failure cost includes rework, crap, reinsertion, re-testing, redesign, material review etc. whilst external failure cost includes processing customer complaints, customer returns, warranty claims and repair costs, product liability and product recalls. Further, appraisal cost could incur while performing measuring, evaluating, or auditing to assure the quality conformance. These costs include first time inspection, checking, testing, process or service audits, calibration of measuring and test equipment, supplier surveillance, receipt inspection etc. The prevention cost include the costs related to all activities of preventing defects from occurring and to keep appraisal and failure to a minimum, such as, new product review, quality planning, supplier surveys, process reviews, quality improvement teams, education and training etc. [5]. Hence, it creates a necessity to enhance the quality of construction projects to lead them towards successful completion. As per the extant literature, adopting quality into building process is therefore utmost important. In construction, failure can result from malfunction on the part of constructor, designer, or even owner. In most cases however, it is the result of a combination of actions by several or all of these parties. According to previous researches, the construction organization must, therefore, have the ability to deal effectively with all parties involved to make the project success with high project quality. The implementation of quality management plan therefore could start at the project inspection stage and should continue throughout the whole life cycle phases. Providing quality training for construction related professionals who have engaged in construction could also effect to enhance project quality.

Conclusions: Through the research, there was learnt the function and importance of quality control. Quality management in construction is a road map to business success through quality. Directing a construction project towards quality with low cost and time is a greater concern today. It is because quality is required to meet project requirements of the owners, constructors and other parties involved with a greater satisfaction. Moreover, poor quality could lead to unnecessary cost to the organization where it could create costs due to failure, appraisal and prevention. Hence, it creates a necessity to introduce the concept ‘quality’ into building process throughout its whole life phases. Implementing proper quality management plan is important at the project inception where, quality drawings, quality standards and constructability of design may lead to enhance the project quality. However, the commitment and the support of the management are important to continue the process. The awareness and training provides a base to collaborate all parties into the process, in which the collaboration of such all parties in quality management process is essential to lead towards construction project success.

References:

  1. Ferguson, H. and Clayton, L. (Eds) (1988). Quality in the Constructed Project: A Guideline for Owners, Designers and Constructors, 1, New York.
  2. Abdel-Razek, R. H. (1998) Quality improvement in Egypt: methodology and implementation.
  3. Pheng, L. S. (2004) Implementing total quality management in construction firms, ASCE Journal of Management in Engineering, 20(1), pp. 8 –15.
  4. Waje, V.V. and Patil, V. (n.d.). Cost of poor quality in construction, IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering. 16–22.
  5. Burati, J. L. et al., (1992). Quality management organizations and techniques. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 118(1), 112–128.
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): высокое качество, контроль качества, ASCE, IOSR, ISO, качество, проект, человеческая цивилизация.


Ключевые слова

economy, quality, construction projects, importance

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