Corporate tax management: status and development | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Библиографическое описание:

Назарова Г. Н. Corporate tax management: status and development // Молодой ученый. — 2018. — №16.1. — С. 46-49. — URL https://moluch.ru/archive/202/49911/ (дата обращения: 06.12.2019).



The purpose of the activity of any commercial organization is to increase its financial well-being and increase its value. The main factor in achieving these goals is to increase net profit, that is, profit, free of taxes. In turn, taxes paid by the organization constitute a significant share in its financial flows. Tax administration as a separate management activity within the framework of corporate finance management was named «Corporate tax management». Before talking about corporate tax management, we need to understand the meaning of "management".

Management (from English management – management, management, administration, management, ability to dispose, own, manage) or Production management – development and creation (organization), the most effective use (management) and control of socio-economic systems. The term "management" means a set of coordinated activities aimed at achieving the set goals [1, p.5]. V. Siegert gives the following definition: "Management is the management of people and the use of means that allows you to carry out assigned tasks in a humane, economical and rational way" [2,245c]. To this we must add that the goal setting, i.e. the choice of goals and wording of tasks, also refers to management. Moreover, goal-setting is one of the main responsibilities of managers, especially the first leaders. On institutional spheres it is oriented on: entrepreneurship, state social and economic systems, non-profit organizations, etc.

Management is also an academic discipline, social science, the subject of which is the study of social organization. The acquisition of state independence by the Republic of Kazakhstan and the transition to a market economy predetermined the need for global changes in the existing mechanism of economic development and tax relations between taxpayers and the budget. In fact, any failures in the tax system: a growing share of arrears for the main types of taxes, non-fulfillment of the forecast of tax revenues, lack of professionalism in the sphere of management, the prevalence of unskilled managers at enterprises of all levels, the lack of joint activity of financial managers of enterprises and tax authorities for the purposes revealing reserves of profit and forecasting future tax revenues – all this indicates the weakness of the management tool. We considered what "management" is, and now we will consider the tax. Tax is one of the basic concepts of financial science. Therefore, it is important to understand its nature, functions, significance for the national economy. The complexity of understanding the nature of the tax is due to the fact that it is simultaneously an economic, economic and political phenomenon of real life. The tax is a compulsory, individually gratuitous payment compulsorily levied by public authorities of various levels from organizations and individuals with a view to providing financial support for the activities of the state and (or) municipal entities. We gave a definition of management and taxes and now we can determine what is corporate tax management, and find out which scientists have defined. For example, S.V. Barullin believes that corporate tax management is a system for managing the tax flows of a commercial organization by using scientifically based market forms and methods and making managerial decisions in the field of tax revenues and tax expenditures at the micro level. [3, p. 155]

Zrelova AP, Krasnov MV offer to consider tax management in two angles. On the one hand, as a system, the tax obligations and payments of the organization – the taxpayer and the resources that make up its tax base. On the other hand, it is the activity of the taxpayer organization, aimed at increasing the efficiency of its interaction with the state mechanism of taxation.Bukina G.N. in his article "Corporate tax management as an integral part of the business management strategy" proposes the following wording: "Corporate tax management is an integral part of financial management of an economic entity, it is the development and evaluation of management decisions in accordance with the organization's objectives, taking into account the scale of possible tax consequences. One of its main goals is the optimization of tax payments by using all the features of tax legislation.Vylkova E.S. in the textbook "Tax Planning" offers a separate section on tax management. However, this author does not give a definition of this concept. This author singles out tax planning as a component of financial management.

The author of the textbook "Tax management" Selezneva N.N. divides all tax management into tax administration, tax accounting, tax planning. Under tax planning at the level of organizations, Selezneva N.N. understands one of the functions of managing financial and economic activities, which consists in establishing the expected parameters of the future state of the facility, the optimal methods and methods for achieving this state in conditions of limited resources and at an acceptable level of tax risk[4].Having analyzed the definitions of corporate tax management, given by Russian researchers, the author suggests his definition. According to the author of the article, corporate tax management is a set of rules, principles and means of managing tax flows at the organization level with a view to bringing them to the optimality and orderliness, taking into account the current tax legislation and development strategy of the organization. Corporate tax management, as an integral part of general tax management, consists of structural elements:

1. Organization of the tax process – as a common element;

2. Tax planning;

3. Tax accounting

4. Tax control.

The organization of corporate tax management is a set of coordination actions and decisions of employees of the organization that ensure the functioning of the tax process and achieve the goals and objectives of tax planning, tax regulation and tax control. The organization of the tax process is a common element of tax management and is present in every element of it. the organization of tax management as a set of actions and solutions can be divided into two components:

1. Binding component – the adoption of managerial decisions on the objectives of tax management and, as a consequence, the formation of interactions between systems and subsystems of the economic entity. It includes:

• Targeting – building a common (strategic) goal activities within the framework of tax management.

• Organizational structure – a built-in relationship of hierarchies (levels) of management and functional units of the organization;

• Delegation of authority and acceptance of responsibility. Delegating authority means transferring tasks and powers to a person who assumes responsibility for their implementation. Taking responsibility means setting obligations to fulfill existing tasks and being responsible for their satisfactory implementation.

• Communication – creating elements of information exchange between systems and subsystems.

2. Ensuring the component – the adoption of managerial decisions on the provision of systems and subsystems of an economic entity with resources to fulfill the intended objectives. It includes:

• Toolkit – a clearly defined system of forms for the documentation of systems and subsystems, approved by management and adopted for execution by subordinates;

• A temporary resource is a specifically expressed time for the performance of a particular goal or task by the system and subsystems.

The main, the first function of corporate tax management is planning, namely corporate tax planning. Following the rules of formal logic, you need to consistently analyze the categories of "tax" and "planning".

In accordance with the RoK Tax Code, a tax is a mandatory, individually gratuitous payment levied from organizations and individuals in the form of alienation of monetary funds owned by them on the basis of ownership, economic management or operational management for the purpose of providing financial support for the activities of the state and (or) municipal entities. From the category "tax" you can go to the analysis of the category "planning". If the tax as a category is fixed by law, then the category "planning" does not have such a fixation. The last definition is not an object of law.

In the modern economic literature various definitions of the category "planning" are given. So, for example, planning is understood as "a way of regulating economic processes at the level of the national economy of the country, industry, enterprise, territorial unit. Planning involves identifying goals and ways to achieve them, relying on the information of the past, to seek to determine the future. Planning is defined as a kind of activity aimed at choosing the optimal alternative to the development of the socio-economic system as a whole, calculated for a certain period of time.

D. Grove can be met with the following definition of planning: "Planning is basically to identify and consider alternative goals and courses of action and in the selection of those that need to be adopted and implemented." [5]

T. Kashanina proposes to consider planning in a broad sense – as setting goals, choosing strategies, lines of conduct, rules, procedures, etc., and in the narrow sense of the word – as drawing up special documents – business plans that determine the concrete steps of the corporation in this or that area for the coming period. If we summarize the controversy in the category of "planning", then we can conclude that, despite the different points of view in the definition of this category, most authors consider "planning" as a kind of management activity and a way of optimizing the actions of economic entities. Planning at the organizational level can be understood as an important part of managing its financial and economic activities, which consists in creating the desired future state and optimal methods and methods for achieving this state in the face of an ever-changing economic environment and limited resources.

After definition of concepts of the tax and planning it is possible to formulate concept «tax planning». According to D.Yu. Akulinina, the tax planning of a specific subject of entrepreneurial activity is a process of predetermination and forming the size of tax liabilities by choosing the optimal combination and building various legal forms of activity and allocating assets in order to reduce the tax burden within the current tax legislation. CM. Riumin notes that tax planning is a set of legitimate targeted actions of the taxpayer associated with the use of methods and methods, as well as all benefits and exemptions granted by law with a view to minimizing taxes. Having studied the categories "tax" and "planning" consistently, the author proposes his definition of corporate tax planning. Corporate tax planning is the process of drawing up optimal, orderly plan of financial and economic activities of the organization, aimed at full and timely fulfillment of the organization's tax payment obligations, taking into account the current tax legislation and development strategy of the organization. Corporate tax accounting is a set of methods chosen in accordance with the Tax Code to determine income or expenses, their recognition, valuation and distribution, as well as accounting for other necessary for the taxation of indicators of financial and economic activities of the taxpayer. Corporate tax control is the final stage of tax management (process). Standards (quantitative indicators), determined in accordance with the goals formulated for planning taxes (goal-setting) are checked for correct execution in the process of financial and economic activities of the organization. The basis for monitoring is the total tax accounting data and reporting. Since the basis for verifying the correctness of tax planning is the data of tax accounting, it depends on its efficient (tax accounting), and hence on the effective organization of accounting, the efficiency of submitting to the management of the organization the results of tax control. From the timely presentation of the results of tax control, directly depends promptness of making managerial decisions to regulate the tax flows of the organization – changes in the tax plan, adjustment of the tax planning process, tax accounting, etc. Correctly calculated company taxes in the organization of corporate tax management, allows management to plan future investment programs for the development of the organization, without worrying about possible, unforeseen tax expenses, allows to increase the accumulation fund for further development of production. Affecting both the interests of the state and the interests of the organization as an economic entity, corporate tax management becomes one of the most important components of financial management. Studying the basics of managing tax flows, at the expense of properly built, effectively functioning tax management system should provide the entrepreneur with an increase in financial well-being and an increase in the cost of his organization.

References:

  1. Shapiro Waldemer. Russian-English and English-Russian dictionary. – Moscow: Nauka – Wylie, 1993. – 768 p.
  2. Zigert V., Lang L. To lead without conflicts / Trans. with him. – Moscow: Economics, 1990. – 456p.
  3. Barulin SV, Ermakova EA, Stepanenko V.V. Tax management. – Moscow: Omega-L, 2007. – p. 272
  4. Lomakina IS "Corporate tax management: economic content, functions and role in the enterprise management system" UDC 336.22: 658
  5. Long-term planning and forecasting. Moscow: Progress, 1975.
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): UDC.


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