Theoretical and methodological analysis of the causes of delinquent behavior | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Пазылова К. А. Theoretical and methodological analysis of the causes of delinquent behavior // Молодой ученый. — 2018. — №16.1. — С. 49-50. — URL https://moluch.ru/archive/202/49764/ (дата обращения: 08.12.2019).



In this article, various aspects of delinquent behavior and the mechanism of its formation are analyzed. Sociological study of the offense involves an analysis of the problems of socialization of the individual, as well as the patterns of the functioning of the social control system. The causes of delinquent behavior are investigated at once by several disciplines - sociology, psychology, jurisprudence. Their study helps to uncover the motives of illegal behavior, the outlook of the offender, the general patterns of offenses. There are several approaches to the assessment of behavioral norms and deviations. The social approach is based on the idea of a public danger or human security. In accordance with it, any behavior that is clearly or potentially dangerous to the society surrounding people's people should be referred to the deviant. When analyzing deviant behavior, the social approach is oriented toward external forms of adaptation and ignores the individual-personal harmony. Representatives of this approach are E. Durkgeym[1]. The psychological approach is based on the allocation of socio-psychological differences of certain types of deviant personality behavior. Representatives: E.V. Zmanovskaya, [2].Proceeding from the socio-psychological criteria, L.Ya. Zhezlov proposes a classification of behaviors that echoes Khristov's typology: Antidisciplinary, asocial - behavior, which acts as a contradiction to generally accepted norms and indirectly harming society. Antisocial - deviant behavior, which includes direct and indirect destructive tendencies with elements of aggressive actions. Delinquent and autoaggressive behavior. There are such forms of deviant behavior as the use of alcoholic beverages, delinquency, suicidal behavior, the use of psychoactive substances, delinquent and addictive behavior [3]. The purpose of this study predetermines the need to analyze various aspects of delinquent behavior and its relationship to the socialization of the individual. The concept of delinquent behavior comes from the Latin "delinquens - misdemeanor, guilt". These terms mean "unlawful behavior of the person", i.e. "The actions of a particular person, deviating from the laws established in a given society, threatening the well-being and psychological health of other people and society" [3]. Offense - non-compliance with the rules of conduct established by law, other regulatory enactments. They are divided into offenses and crimes. Misdemeas include violations of established by society requirements and rules of conduct. Crime is a dangerous act for society, providing for criminal liability. Both concepts - misdemeanors and crimes - are also considered from the standpoint of socio-psychological knowledge, and imply delinquent behavior of the individual [4]. The diversity of scientific trends and schools of modern psychology and sociology of delinquent behavior has introduced a certain conceptual polysemy in the interpretation of this very notion. Moreover, under the influence of criminal law theory, most of the research is aimed at studying crime, and therefore delinquent behavior as a socio-psychological phenomenon is often interpreted primarily in the criminal legal sense, and the study of the causes and factors that determine deviant behavior is carried out from the standpoint of prevention and control of certain types of crime and socially-negative phenomena. The system-wide social mechanism of deviant behavior, as E.N. Kondrat, unites a complex of various factors not only on macrosocial, microsocial, but also socially-psychological, personal levels [5]. In this regard, deviant behavior appears as a phenomenon determined by social conditions, individual psychological characteristics, the level of social skills and the specific features of the socialization process. Due to the diversity of the determinants of socially deviant behavior, the mechanism for the formation of delinquent behavior is particularly complex. In its structure, four main links are identified, the stages of passage, where, in fact, the complex of determinants of delinquent behavior is realized: problem situation, value-normative behavior and individual psychological qualities, decision making, committing an act [6]. The key point in this scheme, according to E.N. Kondrat, is the second link, when the mechanism of value-normative regulation and individual psychological qualities of the personality comes into play, associated with a different degree of knowledge of the standard of behavior and the nature of the attitude toward it [7]. It is the effectiveness of internal socio-psychological regulators that becomes the decisive condition for making a final decision on the nature and direction of the response to the current situation, which, depending on the characteristics of the individual, can relate to one of three options:a) counteraction to the conflict that underlies the situation;b) escape from the real situation, in particular, its compensation by illusory means, additive behavior;c) adaptation to the conflict situation, including by changing the system of values, interests and opportunities available to the acting entity. According to Perovoy IL, the choice is predetermined by individual psychological and socially-typological features of personality, which are formed as a result of its interaction with the social environment. In the event that the environment supplies socially harmful information in sufficient quantities, and the surrounding environment stimulates the assimilation of views and habits that are incompatible with the norms of morality recognized by society, disrespect for others, aggression, violence as a form of self-affirmation and a means of achieving various goals, expressed negative orientation. Delinquent behavior as one of the forms of deviant behavior of the individual is one of the most dangerous forms of deviation, manifested in the impact on the psyche of a whole complex of negative socio-psychological, psychophysiological factors manifested in family unhappiness, accentuated character traits, psychotraumatic factors, situational characteristics, and as a result of committing different the severity of the offenses. The dynamics of delinquent behavior, according to P. Cutter, represents the following sequence:primary, accidental commission of an offense under the influence of situational factors;secondary delinquency, caused by the difficulties of socio-psychological adaptation, psychological and pedagogical factors;more serious delinquent behavior . Due to the dependence of individual psychological and personal properties in the determination of deviant behavior today, most scientists hold the position that this form of behavior is determined in many ways by a combination of socio-psychological factors that develop from beliefs and beliefs, the development of the emotional-volitional sphere, the presence of psychotraumatic situations, in accordance with which the individual evaluates the requirements of the society, and thus his attitude towards the problems of legal awareness, determines the willingness to commit illegal action. Consequently, the system-wide social mechanism of deviant behavior unites a complex of diverse factors not only on the macrosocial, microsocial, but also socio-psychological, personal levels. Thus, by examining the typology of delinquent behavior, we came to the following conclusions: Personality in its development is in four spheres of social interaction: the sphere of normative behavior, the sphere of social and psychological adaptation, the sphere of deviant behavior and the sphere of delinquent behavior.In the sphere of deviant behavior delinquent type is observed by negative psychological effects in the social environment, which are provoked by the social situation and psychophysiological features. Delinquent behavior is a consequence of a whole complex of socio-psychological reasons leading to maladaptation of the individual.

References

  1. Kleiberg Yu.A. Deviant behavior in questions and answers. - M., 2008. - 304 p.
  2. Miller AI Illegal behavior of minors. - Kiev, 1985. - 150 with.
  3. Kudryavtsev VI Social deformations. - M., 1992. - 133 p.
  4. Zmanovskaya EV Deviantology: the psychology of deviant behavior. - M., 2003. - 288 p.
  5. Mendelevich V.D. Psychology of deviant behavior. - M., 200 - 488 p.
  6. Kondrat E.N. Prevention of delinquent behavior of minors. - St. Petersburg, 2006. - 168 p.
  7. Alexandrov AA Deviation behavior in adolescents. - Lviv, 1998. - 197 with.


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