The article is a review of the theoretical part of the master's thesis on "Psychological aspects of deviant behavior in work collectives", which examines various approaches to socio-psychological study of the individual. The transition from a natural-science to a humanitarian paradigm in psychology can be considered the moment of transferring the center of gravity of consideration of a person from a static construct to the dynamic process of becoming, from the past (the conditions for the formation of personality) to the future (direction, meaning of life, the need to be a person), from assessing behavior as a constant behavioral) to evaluate it as a mental reflection of objective reality (objectification, individual style of activity communication).At the present time, this transition is observed in the tendency to consider an integral personality, which is a manifestation of an integral tendency that more fully reflects the understanding of the personality phenomenon itself. All this did not slow down the transformation of the task of "studying an integral personality" to the task of "studying a complete personality in a whole world" , treating a person as an integral developing system, determining the place of a person in the modern world with its increasingly complex problems. If we turn to the historical context of human studies, the development of science has had a direct and indirect influence on the ways of existence and universality of the idea of the individual, on the rethinking of the phenomenon of personality, its theoretical, methodological and empirical interpretation, to replace the basic theoretical concepts of personality. With the development of experimental psychology and the design of psychology as a science, the development of the psychology of personality occurred not only within the framework of philosophy and sociology but in the studies of Soviet scientists in psychophysiology, physiology of sense organs, brain physiology, physiology of higher nervous activity and other natural sciences. For a more graphic demonstration of this transition, let us conduct a theoretical study of the main directions (concepts) of studying the psychology of the individual. Analysis of the basic theories of personality development leads to the idea that as a science, the psychology of personality is contradictory in nature. There is science, there is an object of study, methods are being developed for studying it, hypotheses are being put forward, concepts, theories and entire directions are being formed, but asking the question, no one can determine the subject of the study. It can be noted that today in psychology there is a widespread view of man as an individual, person and subject of activity, but at the same time there is no more or less generally accepted concept of personality. In other words, the absence of a "universal" theory of personality makes any theory viable only within the framework of this theory itself. An analysis of the basic concepts of personality theory, taking into account their dissimilarity, still allows us to identify common points of contact. In most theories, the personality appears in the form of a hypothetical structure or organization. Human behavior is organized at the level of the individual. Most theories emphasize the importance of individual differences between people. In most theories, the personality is characterized in the development process as a subject of influence of internal and external factors, including genetic and biological predisposition, social experience and a dynamic external environment. In most theories, it is the person who "answers" for the sustainability of behavior. It provides a person with a sense of continuity in time and the environment. While focusing on the coverage of the problem of mental development, it should be noted that in the modern psychological literature one can find a description of many theoretical approaches. They differ significantly in their notions of the mechanisms of development, of its driving forces, of regularities and indicators. Theories of development that have developed in psychology can be classified into specific directions, taking as a basis the subject of research. In turn, among the concepts of personal development, the most constructive and, correspondingly, rationalism is different: the principle of development, explained through activity (SL Rubinstein, AN Leontiev);concept of development Vygotsky; theory of E. Ericson's development, integrating the role of biological factors, upbringing and socio-cultural environment; self-actualization theory; theory of VM. Bechterew about the organic and social spheres of personality; theory of endo and exopsychic manifestations Lazursky; theory of installation Uznadze; theory of semantic formations Bratus, intersecting with the "need to be a person" A.V. Petrovsky. Thus, in analyzing the main driving forces of the development of the individual, one must consider individuality as an integrating phenomenon. And to begin this analysis is necessary with the basic principles of socio-cognitive theory of personality, according to which individuals are neither autonomous systems nor simple mechanical transmitters of the influence of society. They have higher abilities, which allow them to predict the occurrence of events and create means for exercising control over what affects their lives . Human functioning is seen as a product of interaction of behavior, personal factors and the influence of the environment. Being a representative of moderate behaviorism, A. Bandura, the author of the theory, develops the theory of universal learning, learning through modeling. For this A. Bandura introduces the concepts: self-reinforcement; self-regulation, which includes self-observation, self-assessment and evaluation of activities; self-efficacy. Let us dwell in more detail on self-efficacy, the acquisition of which can occur in any of the four ways or with their combination:The ability to build behavior is the influence of past experience of success or failure in trying to achieve the desired results. Indirect experience is the impact of assessing past experiences of other people.Verbal belief. Emotional uplift – the ability to relate the level of emotional tension and the probability of success. It should be remembered that the complex process of development of the social sphere of the individual does not eliminate the organic sphere of the personality, it only supplements and can partially suppress. There is a kind of transformation of new combinations arising from the realities of social life, or rather from their impacts. "Personality from the objective point of view is a psychic individual with all its distinctive features, an individual who appears to be an amateur creature in relation to the surrounding external conditions," notes VM. Bekhterev . Being representatives of different approaches to the study of personality, many psychologists believed that the "personal sphere" concentrates in itself the most important for the life of the organism past experience. With the expansion of public life, the personal sphere is not limited to the formation of psycho-reflexes, the result of organic influence on the body. There is the formation of a "social trace", resulting from the conditions of social life. Such a person looks like two closely connected "sets of tracks", one of which is more closely connected with the organic, the other – with the social sphere. And from the degree of development of this or that set of traces, we have a predominance in the personality of the so-called "egoism or altruism" . Thus, the social sphere of the individual, developing on the basis of the organic sphere, can expand it depending on the social conditions of life to the extent that organic influence is suppressed by the past experience of social relations and social influences. A.F. Lazursky, analyzing and comparing the various manifestations of both the content and the degree of expression, from which the concept of personality is built, divides them into two groups. This classification must also be taken into account, if desired, to determine the main driving forces for the development of the individuality of an adult. Endopsychic manifestations express the inner interrelation of the psychic levels of the individual. The author of the theory refers to such manifestations as temperament, character, abilities, mental functions (perception, memory, attention, thinking), affective excitability, ability to volitional efforts, impulsiveness. The endopsychic, composing the core of the personality, is reflected in outward manifestations. Exopsychic manifestations reveal themselves in relation to the surrounding phenomena: how a person reacts to certain objects, what he loves and hates, what he is interested in and indifferent to . The division of the psyche into endo- and exo- and the nature of the origin of the individual elements of the psyche have a common denominator only if they are superficially examined. That is why, having a core of personality, formed mainly by the 25-30 years of life, one can speak of a "psychic level". Therefore, the development of the personality of an adult person is a manifestation of an already formed personality, which is reduced mainly to its exogenous manifestations, while the totality of endo-manifestations inherent to it will remain more or less unchanged in the future. Characterizing the mental levels, it is also necessary to dwell on the signs characterizing the increase in the mental level. Wealth of personality, which denotes the total number of mental products, manifested outside, i.e. abundance, diversity and complexity (or vice versa, primitive, poverty, monotony) of individual mental manifestations. Strength, brightness, intensity of individual mental manifestations: the stronger they are, the greater the possibilities for raising the mental level. Consciousness and ideality of mental manifestations: the higher the spiritual organization of a person, the more rich and intense psychic life he lives. As a result, a person develops a system of principles – moral, social, etc. Coordination of mental elements, which together constitute a human personality: the higher the tendency to coordinate and integrate these elements, the higher the level of mental development .The lowest level characterizes the maximum influence of the external environment on the human psyche. The environment, as it were, subordinates such a person to himself, without regard for its endoscopic features. Hence the contradiction between the capabilities of a person and the skills he has mastered, for example, professional skills. Therefore, the person is not able to give even the little that could have been with more independent and independent behavior. The middle level implies a great opportunity to adapt to the environment, determining its place in it. More conscious, possessing greater capacity for work and initiative, they choose classes corresponding to their inclinations and makings. Such people can be called adapted. At the highest level of mental development, the process of adaptation is complicated by the fact that considerable tension, intensity of psychic life forces not only to adapt to the environment, but also to create the desire to remodel, modify it in accordance with their own drives and needs. In other words, here we can meet with the process of creativity . So, the lower level gives people not enough or badly adapted, the middle – adapted, and the higher – adaptable.
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