In the article suggested ways of increasing effective study practice and practical skills of students.
В статье рассматриваются цели и задачи учебной практики, навыки, которыми должны овладеть учащиеся.
Educational practice as an organic part of the educational process, providing a mix of theoretical preparation of students with their practical activities, is one of the means of successful preparation of students for work. It provides an opportunity to fully understand the patterns and principles of education, to master professional skills and experience of practical work.
The modern approach to teaching practice is based on the implementation of ideas of humanitarization, when the purpose and meaning of the educational process is the development and self-development of the individuality, the self-actualization of the student's personality. Such an approach is not implemented through training to prescribed knowledge, skills and skills, but in the process of learning activities, the core of which is the development and self-development of the individual abilities of each.
The educational activity of students should be organized as a process of solving scientific and practical problems that allow each student to carry out self-development, self-knowledge, self-realization. With this approach, the main subject in the college practice is the student. It ceases to be a store of knowledge with normalized reactions: to present data about the college, about the teacher, about the students, to conduct and analyze so many lessons and extracurricular activities. The key is the decision of the student of pedagogical problems in the conditions of college, since the main thing is the pupil himself, changes in his experience, the formation of his professional competence
The goals and objectives of the training practice are defined and developed on the basis of the requirements of the state educational standard for the SVSE graduates. Since the functional approach is used to determine the professional knowledge, skills, as well as the individual and personal qualities of the teacher, this approach is also retained when determining the degree of preparedness of students for learning activity, and, consequently, in determining the goals of the training practice.
The main goal of the training practice is to master the students the basic functions of professional skill and quality.
Students of the period of educational practice should basically master the constructive function, which is ensured by the presence of the student such skills as:
‒ make up individual work schedules.
‒ to define and formulate the goals of the lesson — education, upbringing, development.
‒ to ensure their implementation by the best methodical means.
‒ select the educational material, establish the correct relationship between the components of the subject knowledge.
‒ to select methods and means of instruction adequate to the purposes and content of the teaching material, the psychological and pedagogical characteristics of the student.
‒ to plan the educational activities of students and the ways of its organization.
‒ determine the type and structure of the lesson.
‒ make thematic and lesson plans.
‒ to plan the content and methods of conducting classes in the subject circle, electives, various forms of extracurricular work.
Students in the training practice must master the mobilization function, which is ensured by the following complex of skills:
‒ to activate and develop the cognitive activity of the student, provide attention, memorization, comprehension of educational material;
‒ to achieve the actualization of existing knowledge, to form new ones on the basis of basic knowledge.
On the training practice it is necessary to master the organizational function, which is provided by the presence of such skills:
‒ organize the implementation of the planned lesson plan;
‒ rationally distribute time between the structural and logical parts of the lesson, between the methods of presentation of the teaching material by the work of the students;
‒ to manage the educational activities of students;
‒ describe and organize the student's workplace.
Educational practice enables pupils to master the communicative function, which is provided by such skills:
‒ establish business relationships with students and between students, with the college staff and with parents;
‒ to provide feedback to students in the learning process;
‒ show attention, strictness, keep a business tone, pedagogical tactic to the students;
‒ to prevent and resolve conflict situations with students,
‒ master the technology of conflict resolution.
Mastering the information function provides for the development of such skills:
‒ to form the subject knowledge of the student;
‒ transfer educational information in a strict logical sequence, using inductive and deductive ways of forming knowledge, linking it with the previous subjects of the course of the subject and carrying out intersubject communications;
‒ transfer knowledge by students, using the methods of oral presentation freely, working with a textbook, a card and other sources of information, with various teaching aids, TSS in their appropriate combination, taking into account the content of the educational material, the age characteristics of the students, the level of their motivation for teaching;
‒ use a variety of methods and forms of testing the knowledge of the student;
‒ Objectively evaluate the responses of students, comment on the evaluation;
‒ When instructing home material, conduct instruction.
In the period of educational practice the student must master the orientation (nurturing) function, the performance of which requires the following skills:
‒ to carry out the educational training of the subject: to form the scientific outlook of the pupils, to realize their ideological, moral, labor, aesthetic, nature protection, vocational guidance, both through educational material and by establishing interdisciplinary connections; use integrative teaching methods; to organize cognitive communication.
The student will be able to master the developing function if there are such skills: to carry out developing problematic training of pupils, teaching at different levels of complexity; to include in the training, including for the performance of independent work, typical and problem tasks; teach students the methods of learning activities; To carry out diagnostics of the formation of the main spheres of the individuality of the student, to use the means of their development in the learning process
During the period of the training practice in the college, the students acquire a research function, the fulfillment of which is ensured by such skills:
‒ to monitor and analyze the lesson and extra-curricular activities in methodical, general, and psychological aspects from the standpoint of modern requirements and taking into account the achievements of the best practices of teachers;
‒ to carry out self-analysis, to theoretically comprehend the experience of other trainees, especially when analyzing lessons or extra-curricular activities;
‒ to collect, systematize, generalize the facts of pedagogical activity for the purpose of performing scientific and methodological work during the period of training practice.
Thus, the leaders of the training practice face the task: to solve the problems of its organization in a new way, to increase its role in mastering the secrets of professional skill by the students, the foundations of organizational work.
- Bayborodova L. V. The concept and program of pedagogical practice students of the Yaroslavl Pedagogical University. — Yaroslavl, 1996.
- Gorlenko V. P. Pedagogical practice of students: new scientific approaches // Pedagogy. — 1995. — № 5. — P. 63–69.