The philosophical comprehension of the concept of social justice, the presentation of its main ideological blocks in scientific creativity, the reconstruction of its diverse connections, the construction of its holistic theoretical image and the characteristic of its practical value, a deep understanding of the canons of justice, the cognition of the most important trends in its change, the ability to discuss complex problems, identify, understand, clarify different, sometimes opposing points of view, the desire in the course of resolving contradictions to develop a correct, justified approach to complex social problems- these were the purposes of the works of the great thinkers, the peripatetic of the medieval East, Abu Nasr Farabi, Ibn Miskaveikh, Ibn Sina, Muhammad Gazzali, al Kindi. Among the listed philosophers, a special place is given to the philosophical doctrine of social justice and education of Abu Nasr al-Farabi. As you know, the philosophy of the thinker, encyclopedist originates from the teachings of Aristotle, but the roots of Farabi’s teachings about justice are viewed through the prism of Islamic sources. It should be noted that not all the problems that worried al-Farabi and which he raised in his works belonged to the past, many of his ideas are relevant and of fundamental importance today. In this regard, the study of the problem of mutual influence of education and social justice of al-Farabi seems very relevant. The relevance of the study of this problem is also conditioned by the need to address the spiritual heritage of the past in order to learn from it lessons in order to update and revitalize modern society.
The studying of the philosophical heritage of the Oriental peripatetic philosopher, recognized by Muallimus Sonia, which means “The Second Teacher” (after Aristotle), al-Farabi, acquires great relevance in conditions of Uzbekistan’s independent development, strengthening of democratic reforms, the establishment of a rule of law and the building of civil society, consent in it. In this regard, the study of the socio-political philosophy of al-Farabi, especially his doctrine of justice, freedom, happiness, the need for mutual assistance between people, his call for the study of sciences, for the intellectual and moral improvement of man and society, is over-urged. The thinker of the medieval Renaissance in his works repeatedly turns to topics about political leadership, ideas about virtuous society and the state, about justice, equality, preservation of peace, prevention of war, condemnation of unjust wars. In this regard, the philosophy and ideas of the thinker can become a valuable source in the socio-political education of the younger generation.
It should be noted that every epoch, every thinker gave birth to his principle of justice. Farabi said that justice is an adequacy, that is, a correspondence, correlation with the proper, with the ideal, measurement according to a certain standard. But the philosopher notes that justice in its manifestation is compulsory. For example, charity (alms) is imposed on a Muslim. In addition, the philosopher argued that natural justice is born of fear, weakness, and coercion: “... in buying and selling, repaying debt, not being angry at anything, not harassing anyone, and so on, the one who does so in the first place, out of fear, weakness, and being forced to do so by an external necessity... from all this, conditions are created for the purchase and sale, mutual respect, mutual comfort and other phenomena of the same kind arise” .
Also the philosopher from the city of Farab notes that justice is the requirement of an equation of rights. It is true that a society where people pay due tribute to his merit, evaluate his dignity and abilities. Evaluation is expressed not only in material compensation, but also in public recognition and historical memory. Farabi further emphasizes: “A person must have a beautiful understanding and a representation of the essence of things, and, moreover, he must be restrained and persistent in the process of mastering by sciences, nature should love the truth and its proponents, justice and its adherents, not show self-will and egoism in their desires, not to be greedy of food, drink, by nature to despise passions, dirkhams and dinars and all that like. He must observe pride in that he is blamed by people, he is well-bred, easy to obey the good and justice and it is difficult to give in to evil and injustice, to have great prudence” . Further, the thinker notes that in the process of socialization of the individual, along with the existence of justice in the society, it is also necessary to educate the people, the education of the individual and his moral perfection. Only in a just society where reasonable, just laws are established, freedom of the individual, his self-realization is possible. He pays special attention to pedagogy and philosophy: “Knowledge of the beautiful and fair must necessarily have a practical orientation. A person who does not know science is closer to philosophy if his actions correspond to what is fine than the one who read books on different branches of knowledge, but does not coordinate his actions with the beautiful. In addition to theoretical knowledge, virtuous actions are needed” .
The state, as a hierarchical organism, helps maintain the balance of interests of various social groups, the harmonious development of society and the achievement of people’s ultimate goal is happiness. The state, the thinker emphasizes, is nothing but a tool designed to protect society from disorder and hostility, bringing them justice, peace and tranquility. It should be emphasized that the basis of his teaching about society and the state is the dialectical principles of the relationship between the general and the particular, the general and the particular. This means that a large — just state and a virtuous society starts in the small — in the person of every person, every person, striving for education, self-improvement, comprehension of truth and noble qualities, a fair and honest way of life, and also interconnected and interdependent. It should be noted that Farabi has a special role in strengthening social justice in the state and streamlining human and socio-political relations, resolving the problems that arise, to the head of state. The head of state in the political philosophy of the thinker acts not only as the cause of the emergence and functioning of the state, but also as a politician with high knowledge, skills and skills of government. The head is elected for his personal qualities, called to act as a guarantor of justice, order and protection of citizens against lawlessness, enmity and arbitrariness. But he understands that the virtuous relationship of the ruler to his subjects and the virtuous submission of subjects to the ruler are not always achievable. With regard to “evil” people who do not obey rulers, it is not only possible, but also necessary, violence is expulsion from the city, beating and even execution. It is the way through violence to happiness. This is how the question of al-Farabi solves, considering the ratio of the perfect goal and the bad means to achieve it .
We believe that although his ideas were not realized in practice during the Middle Ages, however, the discussion of social issues and moral and educational issues of al Farabi raised to the level of logical definitions, thereby laying the foundations for the beginning of theoretical and methodological research in this field. The problems, which received their impulse from the philosopher, occupied a very important place and enjoyed great influence in the philosophical and political systems of his associates and subsequent thinkers, who broadly appealed to his teaching to substantiate their theoretical views.
Making the conclusion, we would like to note that for the education system the nature of external circumstances is conditioned by social development in the human system, which depends on a multitude of historically developed, emerging and cultural factors that include social justice, mutual respect, respect for the non-violation of the rights and freedoms of the individual and others values.
Improving the education system, training, personnel policy, along with a competent policy of stimulating the economy, contains huge reserves for the ever more consistent implementation of the idea of social justice. The right to justice is included in the list of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, for, as Nizami said: “In this life we are all equally important” .
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