Interactive training as a part of professional education | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Автор:

Рубрика: Педагогика

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №9 (195) март 2018 г.

Дата публикации: 05.03.2018

Статья просмотрена: 11 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Имамназарова, Муаттар. Interactive training as a part of professional education / Муаттар Имамназарова. — Текст : непосредственный // Молодой ученый. — 2018. — № 9 (195). — С. 159-161. — URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/195/48589/ (дата обращения: 25.01.2022).



The learner becomes a full participant in the educational process, his experience serves as the main source of educational knowledge. The teacher (the presenter) does not give ready knowledge, but encourages participants to an independent search. Compared with traditional learning in interactive learning, the interaction between the teacher and the student changes: the activity of the teacher gives way to the activity of the students, and the teacher's task is to create conditions for their initiative. The teacher refuses the role of a kind of filter that passes through the training information, and performs the function of an assistant in the work, one of the sources of information.

Interactive learning is immersed in communication, it retains the ultimate goal and the main content of the subject, but modifies the forms and techniques of the lesson. Interactive activities in the classroom presupposes the organization and development of interactive communication, which leads to mutual understanding, interaction, to the joint solution of common but significant tasks for each participant. Interactive excludes the domination of one speaker and one opinion over another. In the course of interactive learning, students learn to think critically, solve complex problems on the basis of an analysis of circumstances and relevant information, weigh alternative opinions, take thoughtful decisions, participate in discussions, and communicate with others. To do this, individual, pair and group work is organized in the lessons, research projects, role plays are used, work is being done with documents and various sources of information, creative work is being used.

Thus, the interactive method of learning solves simultaneously three main tasks: cognitive, communicative-developing, socially-orientational.

It should also be noted the importance of interactive forms and methods of teaching in ensuring the achievement of a number of important educational goals: stimulating motivation and interest in the subjects studied; increase in the level of activity and independence of trainees; development of skills for analyzing the criticality of thinking, interaction, communication; self-development and development, thanks to the activation of intellectual activity and interaction with the teacher and other participants in the educational process.

Interactive training assumes intergroup and intergroup activity of students and the direction of actions (initiative). Activity of learners in the process of interactive learning can be represented by three main groups: physical activity, social activity and cognitive activity.

The physical activity of trainees consists in the spatial displacement, the change in the way the partners interact, for example, in a business or role-playing game. Students can change jobs, change seats, make presentations at the blackboard or in front of the audience, work in small groups, talk, write, listen, make drawings, etc.

The social activity of students is manifested in the fact that they themselves initiate interaction with each other, use various techniques and techniques of information exchange: ask questions and respond to them, exchange opinions, comments, comments, etc.

Cognitive activity of students is manifested in the need to independently formulate and raise the problem, determine the ways to solve it, offer recommendations, and develop advice.

An integral part of many interactive methods is working in a small group. Work in small groups is one of the most popular strategies, as it gives all students (including shy) the opportunity to participate in the work, practice the skills of cooperation, interpersonal communication (in particular, the ability to listen actively, develop a common opinion, resolve emerging disagreements). All this is often impossible in a large team.

The following norms of behavior should be emphasized in the process of interactive learning:

‒ In the joint work there are no «actors» and «spectators», all are participants;

‒ Each member of the group deserves to be listened to without interrupting;

‒ You should speak in such a way that you are understood; speak directly on the topic, avoiding unnecessary information;

‒ If the information provided is not completely clear, ask questions «for understanding»; only after this conclusions are drawn;

‒ Everyone has the right to ask everyone for help; everyone is obliged to help someone who seeks help;

‒ Ideas are criticized, not individuals;

‒ The goal in joint activities is not to «win» any single point of view, but in the opportunity to find a better solution by learning different opinions on the issue.

Interactive teaching changes the requirements for the teacher's work in a certain way. The teacher should have the following skills:

‒ Organize the research process of the task in such a way that it is perceived by the trainee as an own initiative;

‒ To purposefully organize for the students learning situations that encourage them to integrate efforts;

‒ Create an educational atmosphere and dose recognizing the pedagogical interaction as the influence of the reactions of the trainees on the managerial influences of the teacher, solving non-standard educational and interpersonal situations

‒ Retaining their scientific authority, helping the trainees not fall under his dependence that cramps their thinking activity, and manifest independence in intellectual behavior. In the structure of the learning process with the use of interactive learning techniques, the following steps are distinguished:

  1. Orientation. Stage preparation of participants in the game and experts. The teacher offers a mode of work, develops together with students the main goals and objectives of the lesson, formulates the educational problem. Further, he gives a characterization of simulation and game rules, an overview of the general course of the game, and issues packets of materials.
  2. Preparation for the conduct. This is the stage of studying the situation, instructions, installations and other materials. The teacher sets out the scenario, stops on the game tasks, rules, roles, game procedures, rules of scoring (the scoreboard of the game is compiled). Students collect additional information, consult with the teacher, and discuss the content and process of the game among themselves. Holding the game. This stage includes the actual process of the game. Since the start of the game no one has the right to interfere and change its course. Only the presenter can correct the actions of the participants if they deviate from the main goal of the game. The teacher, starting the game, should not without participation take part in it. Its tasks are to monitor the game actions, results, score points, clarify ambiguities and provide assistance at their request to the participants in their work.

3. Discussion of the game. The stage of analysis, discussion and evaluation of the results of the game. The teacher conducts a discussion during which experts act, participants exchange views, defend their positions and decisions, draw conclusions, share their impressions, talk about the difficulties that have arisen in the course of the game, the ideas that came to mind. Clarin, Yu.S. Tjunnikov, and others studied the educational possibilities of the game used in the learning process: games provide the teacher with opportunities related to the reproduction of learning outcomes (knowledge, skills), their use, working out and training, taking into account individual differences, involving students in different levels in the game training. At the same time, games carry in themselves the potential for significant emotional and personal impact, the formation of communicative skills and values, and value relationships. Therefore, the use of educational games contributes to the development of individual and personal trainees.

Serikova game activity with its internal content implies cooperation, self-development, contributes to the formation of a motivating, mediating, reflexive, semantic, creative and self-developing functions. The game evokes a value experience, is focused on the accumulation of «meanings», on the possibility of assimilating alternative approaches. The game is valuable personal self-realization, experiences, playing roles. In the game, there is a change in one's own sense, the adoption of a new one.

Lavrikova offers a technology for the game, consisting of 6 points: delineation of the game and didactic goals; presence of voluntarily accepted roles; the existence of rules restricting activities; evaluation and self-assessment of the participants themselves; a game conflict that attracts players; culturally appropriate value-semantic reference points in the pedagogical interaction. In the foreign language classes, the role-playing game «Job Dating» is organized in the same format and includes three stages.

At the first stage, students are given out advertising leaflets, vacancy announcements. The task of this stage is not only to form and develop lexical skills (enriching with professional vocabulary), but also to improve the skills of oral speech, as during the work on the texts of prospectuses and announcements, a conversation is organized about the necessary professional and personal qualities, possible strategies of behavior During the meetings, the possible variants of questions from representatives of agencies are formulated and worked out.

At the second stage the teacher explains the essence and rules of the role-playing game to the students, the group is divided into 2 microgroups (at the request of the students themselves): agency representatives and candidates for vacant workplaces (in equal numbers). The game begins at the signal of the teacher. At the same time, at separate tables, students lose the situation of communication between employers and candidates, the essence of which is that agents present their company and the requirements that their employees must meet, and the candidates could present themselves and convince agents of their professional and personal qualities. At the signal of the teacher, students are transplanted clockwise.

At the third stage, a discussion is organized. Each of the representatives of agencies chooses one or more of the most suitable candidates and explains their choice, and the candidates choose the one they like best also arguing their choice. Thus, during the summing up of the game students learn to argue the answer, give objective estimates. We believe that in this format it is possible to organize games in the framework of studying the topics «Travel», «Shopping», «Educational services», etc.

References:

  1. L. K. Geikhman. — Ekaterinburg, 2003. Lavrikova Т. V. Practical pedagogy: technologies of personal orientation. Textbook — 426 pp
  2. Т. В. Lavrikova, V. I. Leshchinsky. — Arkhangelsk: Publishing House. «Press ", 1999. — 175 pp.
  3. Pidkasisty P. I., Khaydarov Zh.S. «Technologies of the Game in Teaching and Development», Moscow, 1996.
  4. Serikov V. V.б Education and personality. V. Serikov. — Moscow: Nauka, 1999. — 122 pp.
  5. Suvorova N. «Interactive Teaching: New Approaches», Moscow, 2005.


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