This article is devoted to negative impacts of mining industry to the environment, specifically discussed geological and geometrical features of the mine, affect of chemical elements, technical and technological processes as well.
Key words: mining industry, digging, solid exploding pits, marshy grounds, ground sinking, dumps, chemical elements, mining ecology.
Mining industry is considered as one of the biggest sources which negatively influences on the nature. The impact of every enterprise, firstly, depends on the usage of its geological and geochemical features, secondly, the collection of chemical elements inside any pit and, thirdly, technical means and technological processes in digging and recycling. It is essential to take into consideration that open pits reach higher percentage in measuring the impact of industries on surrounding. A huge amount of dust and gas go up to clouds and spread out in the process of solid exploding. Afterwards, they fall down the earth and damage the ecosystem. The hydrologic environment of a ground changes and there appear many artificial lakes and marshy grounds as a result of taking out underground water to overground with the help of steep wells in order to dry the pits up. The process of taking out underground water also influences on the geomechanic status of the earth. Sometimes, there may be observed ground motion or formed depression funnels.
Various toxic and harmful chemical elements can be spread regularly by outer and inner dumps of the pit. Outer dump takes up thousands of hectares of productive lands. To be exact, the negative impact of mining industry is polyhedral and we can divide it into following parts:
1) Dumps which are formed in mining industry negatively impact to all living creatures.
2) Sulfuric oxides and other harmful elements, appeared during the digging process, influence on the agriculture and forestry.
3) Different cavities and a ground sinking can be formed as a result of digging and taking out underground waters.
4) Cavities, which are formed during the period of digging fossils in geotechnological way and which are not filled with water or other waste materials, lead to a ground sinking.
5) In the process of recycling or digging the uranium or other radioactive ores up, emission of rays will be spread out and radiate all creatures in the area.
6) Chemical active gases and dust will be emitted straight to the atmosphere in open pits.
7) The problem of keeping unnecessary waste.
It is known that, in open pits the digging process is done by exploding them. According to calculations, during this process 2mln.m3 mountain rocks will be softened and, approximately, 15–20mln.m3 dust and toxic gases will go up and be spread out. The structure and the amount of toxic gases, which appear during any explosion, depend on the type of the explosion itself. A large amount of gases will be isolated by trotyl explosion (till 84.4l/kg) and a less amount-by small grain explosion (till 32l/kg)
Isolation process of secondary gas from mountain rocks can be observed in compact explosion, which lasts 10–15 hours and intensify in digging mountain rocks.
Especially, carbon oxides will be isolated more in the process. In turn, it does not only influence on people, but also on Ozone layer and lead to global warming. That is why it is really important to organize different “Save the environment” measures in mining industry. And, of course, these measures must be related to decreasing toxic dust. The measure should include catching dust and drying up the surfaces covered with it.
1. Dust can be kept with the help of mechanical, hydraulic, filter or electronic dust keepers.
A mechanical dust keeper is based on sinking the dust in influence of its own weight, inert power and the power to escape from the centre. A hydraulic dust keeper is based on sinking the dust by washing it.
Filter dust keepers catch the dust in their cavity filter elements. Electronic ones ionize the dust with the help of current and gather around a positive electrode.
2. Isolated dust and gas will be pressed down during the process of softening mountain rocks. They are softened with drilling and exploding. The dust, which is isolated 1) can be pressed down by the combination of water and air; 2) air can be pressed down by the combination of emulsion; 3) can be kept with dust keepers.
Dust and gas can be pressed down with technological engineering measures in exploding process. Technological measures include controlling the power of explosion.
In technical engineering following should be done:
1) A ground and its surrounding should be wet before the explosion;
2) To use water stemming in the process;
3) To use strong sowing items in the pressing down the dust and gas;
In loading and disembarking mountain rocks followings must be done in order to press the dust and gas down:
1) To wet mining masses beforehand;
2) To rewet them before loading;
3) To sow water or emulsion to automobile roads;
4) To wet the mass in disembarking and gathering process;
5) To repair engines regularly in order to decrease the amount of gas, emitted by automobiles. Catalyc and thermo-catalyc neutralizers should be used in order to shatter gases;
Catalyzers neutralize carbon oxides for 75 %, hydrocarbon for 70 % and aldehydes for 80 % in automobile gases.
3. To dry up the surfaces of pits. The surface, from where the dust can be spread include: the surface of a dump, surroundings of pits, slope boards of a pit and dried grounds of slims.
Places, from where the toxic dust can be spread should be dried up with the help of following methods:
1) To sow polyacrylamide, natrium chlorine, calcium chlorine solutions (0,01–0,1 %) and bitumen emulsion;
2) Plant trees and shrubs around pits;
3) To dry up the surface of a dump in hydrosowing way.
To sum up, mining industry influences on all components of biosphere. These kind of problems are not only connected with mining industry, but also with all exact sciences!
- Salimov X.V, “Ekologiya”, Uzbekistan, Navoi — 2015, 227–230 p
- Родионов A. И. Оборудование и сооружения для зашиты биосферы от промышленных выбросов. М:”Химия”, 1985–352 c.