Essence and criteria for assessing the export potential of the enterprise | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

Библиографическое описание:

Тажибаева Р. М., Жолым Н. Essence and criteria for assessing the export potential of the enterprise // Молодой ученый. — 2018. — №5.1. — С. 70-73. — URL https://moluch.ru/archive/191/48234/ (дата обращения: 19.04.2019).



The current direction of scientific research today is thedevelopment of theexport potential of domestic enterprises. Significant reserves of export potential of the industry were laid during the Soviet era, but today we can say that the export potential of the enterprises is used very little. Today there are a number of trends in domestic exports: opportunities of commodity development have been exhausted; the gap between the proportion of raw materials and finished products in the export structure is increasing towards raw materials; enterprises do not sufficiently use and develop their own export potential; mechanisms for stimulating industrial development in the export-oriented sector of industry are not effective and not fully comply with WTO norms. Modern conditions of development of the international division of labour are aiming to business entities to build and efficiently manage their export potential.

Enterprises with export potential, to effectively govern it, develop it, will be more resilient and competitive in the current economic conditions in the highly globalized world market. Effective use of export capacity will enable the company to obtain additional benefits from participation in international trade, the international division of labour. Expansion of markets, the establishment of new trade and cooperation ties with foreign partners will provide improved performance, increased production and sales volumes in the end - profit.

The formation and development of theexport potential of neglected, it will be processed in fragments, without the simultaneous binding to production, domestic economic activity and imports, and to the qualitative changes that have occurred in the system of foreign economic activity at the macro, meso, and micro levels.[1, р.34]. The export potential of the enterprise does not function in an isolated, closed manner, the process of interpenetrating the potentials of economic systems of different levels: the national economy, the industry, the region, the enterprise. The export potential of industrial enterprises, the construction cannot be developed separately from the export potential of other levels: industry, region, national economy as a whole.

The main purpose of the export potential is to develop the industry and industrial enterprises, to intensify production.

There are different approaches to determining the export potential of the enterprise. Many of them are outdated and do not meet modern conditions of management when businesses operate on a globalized economic space in accordance with the norms and requirements of the WTO. There is no comprehensive methodology to determine the export potential of the enterprise, its evaluation and the development of control methods for them. An important aspect is the development of adequate mechanisms for the management and development of export potential of the enterprise to meet WTO requirements.

It is possible to offer a definition of the export potential of the enterprise, based on a critical analysis of existing approaches, analysis of the current development of the international division of labour and international trade and industrial relations and their own fabrications.

Under the export potential of the enterprise refers to the total capacity of the company, based on its industrial and economic opportunities, make sales of products abroad, attract foreign direct investment and to participate in international collaborative industrial processes.

Thus incorporated modern features of economic activities, including the need to not only direct delivery of products, but also the participation of enterprises in international cooperation processes for the effective development of the export potential.

In managing such a complex economic subject, as an export potential of the company, required the most comprehensive account of the multiple indicators of macro- export potential, meso and micro level, the effect of which is due to the influence of both external to the enterprise environment and the internal state of the enterprise [1, р.34].

We can distinguish a number of factors that affect the export potential of enterprises: common external factors affecting the export potential of industrial enterprises (STP, political factors, situation on the world markets, government regulation and international organizations); factors influencing directly on the export potential of a particular company (customers, competitors, national state regulation and support of national exporters, suppliers of imported parts and components, partners of international industrial cooperation, infrastructure); factors shaping the export potential of specific industrial enterprises (the presence of modern imported equipment, the availability of innovative products, participation in international collaborative industrial processes, the presence of imported parts and components for the production of export products, participate in the activities of special economic zones, development strategy of foreign trade, financial capacity [2, р.114].

The model of export potential allows us to present a schematic structure of the export potential of the modern enterprise, identify internal components and increasing reserves, an export potential; to determine the factors affecting the export potential, and consequently to control them.

The model takes into account the export potential of companies and it is the basis for the development of aneconomic methodology for assessing the export potential of the latter.

The essence of the methodology for assessing the development of export potential of the enterprises is to determine the elemental structure of the company's export potential and the development of indicators, thesystem of indicators, with the release of the key targets of indicator for a particular company (Table 1).

Table 1

Content of the elemental structure of the export potential of enterprises

Elementsofpotential

Indicators

1.

Productionpotential

Costoffixedassets

- Capital productivity

- Coefficient of renewal of fixed assets

- The share of imported equipment in the structure of fixed production assets

2.

Financial potential

Total profitability

- Volume of sales

- Net profit

- Size of circulating assets

- Absolute liquidity ratio

- Coefficient of financial activity

- Coefficient of solvency

- Amount of government subsidies received for the development of R&D and export production

- Amount of state guarantee of export deliveries of enterprise products

- Amount of state crediting of export deliveries of production of the enterprise

- Amount of state insurance of export deliveries of production of the enterprise

3.

Labor (staff) potential

Numberofstaff

-Productivity of labour

- The share of management employees employed in foreign trade activities in the total number of employees

- The share of managerial employees engaged in customs declaration of exported products in the total number of employees

4.

Exportcapacity

Exportsalesvolume

- Exportgrowthrates

- Share of exports in sales

- Profit and profitability from exports

5.

Marketpotential

Availabilityofinternationalcertificates

- Number of counterparties in the external market

- Number of countries importing products

- Share of products of the enterprise supplied to foreign countries

- Exportnomenclature

6.

Competitivenessofexportproducts

Share of products certified for compliance with international standards

- Cost of 1 kg of exported products

- Share of exported types of products in the total range of products

- The share of imported high-quality components and components in the final product

- The share of innovative products

- Proportion of products with a mark of compliance with the requirements of the customs union

- Share of manufactured products falling under state guarantees and insurance of export supplies

7.

Infrastructure

The proportion of customs declarations made using an electronic declaration

- Specific weight of customs declarations filed with the customs authority with errors

- The number of critical mistakes in customs declarations that entailed the addition of customs payments or the initiation of cases of administrative violation

- Termofcustomsclearance

8.

Participation in international industrial cooperation

Number of foreign partners-subcontractors or contractors

- The level of international cooperation in the production of products

- The number of customs declarations executed in accordance with the customs procedures for processing

- The number of customs declarations executed in accordance with the customs procedures for temporary import/export for import/export of technological equipment on international lease terms

The proposed methodology encompasses all the economic components of the export potential and allows you to select targets, indicators of development of export potential of the enterprises.

The cell structure of the export potential of companies identified the following components: production potential, financial potential, labour potential, export opportunities, market potential and the competitiveness of exports, infrastructure, participation in international industrial cooperation.

In contrast to existing methods of the proposed methodology, in addition to the classical industrial and financial, additionally introduced the following indicators-indicators that are specific to enterprises, such as: the share of imported and unique innovative equipment in the structure of fixed assets; the amount of public subsidies received for R & D and the development of export-oriented production; the amount of state insurance of export deliveries of enterprise; the proportion of administrative employees who carry out the customs declaration of exported products, the total number of employees; the share of imported high-quality components and components in the final product; the share of products with a mark of conformity to the requirements of the customs union; the proportion of products that fall under the state guarantees and insurance of export deliveries; the number of critical errors in customs declarations that resulted in additional charging of customs fees, or initiation of administrative offense; term of customs clearance; the level of international cooperation in the production of products; number of customs declarations made in accordance with custom processing procedures; the number of foreign partners or subcontractors contractors [3, р.41].

Also, a number of sources you can find a model of the formation and implementation of the export strategy of the company adapted to domestic enterprises.

The essence of the model is to evaluate the export potential of the enterprise and monitoring the effectiveness of the implementation of the export strategy by assessing the target enterprise activities related to its export activities. This model allows us to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the export potential: assess the state of the enterprise (production, employment, financial capacity); assess the level of its export activity. The model involves the choice of export strategy based on the various options, and in accordance with established criteria.

References:

  1. Blank I. A. Shopping Management / I.A. Blank. – M.: Ukrainian-Finnish Institute of Management and Business, 1997. – 672 p.
  2. Nazarenko V. M., Nazarenko K. S. Customs clearance of international traffic: a practical guide /V. M. Nazarenko, K. S. Nazarenko. – M.: Publisher «Exam», 2009. – 384 p.
  3. Bakhramov T. G., Glukhov N. V. Organization of foreign economic activity: Features Management / T. G.Bahramov, N. V. Glukhov. SPb.: Lan, 2011. – 444 p.
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): WTO, STP.


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