Professionally oriented foreign language teaching to the ESP students | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Автор:

Рубрика: Педагогика

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №3 (189) январь 2018 г.

Дата публикации: 22.01.2018

Статья просмотрена: 1919 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Нигматуллина, Г. Р. Professionally oriented foreign language teaching to the ESP students / Г. Р. Нигматуллина. — Текст : непосредственный // Молодой ученый. — 2018. — № 3 (189). — С. 203-205. — URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/189/47926/ (дата обращения: 25.01.2022).



The professionally oriented approach to the teaching of a foreign language in technical universities, which provides for the formation of the ability of students to communicate in specific professional, business, scientific spheres and situations, taking into account the peculiarities of professional thinking, is of particular relevance. Vocational-oriented is understood as learning, based on the needs of students in the study of a foreign language, dictated by the characteristics of the future profession or profession. It suggests the combination of mastering a professionally oriented foreign language with the development of the personal qualities of students, knowledge of the culture of the country of the studied language and the acquisition of special skills based on professional and linguistic knowledge.

Professional-oriented teaching of a foreign language is now recognized as a priority in the renewal of education.

Non-verbal communication becomes an essential component of the professional activity of specialists. An analysis of pedagogical scientific and methodological sources has shown that there is an infinite number of methodological directions and technologies for teaching a foreign language in non-linguistic faculties of universities. Currently, the task is not only to master the skills of communication in a foreign language, but also to acquire special knowledge in the specialty.

Considering a foreign language as a means of forming the professional orientation of a future specialist, Galskova notes that when studying vocational-oriented language material, a two-way link is established between the student's desire to acquire special knowledge and the success of mastering a language. She considers a foreign language to be an effective means of professional and social orientation in a non-linguistic institution. According to the author's opinion, in order to realize this potential, the following conditions must be met:

‒ a clear formulation of the objectives of foreign-language speech activity;

‒ social and professional orientation of this activity;

‒ satisfaction of the trainees in solving particular problems;

‒ formation of the ability of the students to be creative in solving specific problems;

‒ a favorable psychological climate in the training community.

A huge contribution to the development of the theory of professionally-oriented teaching of a foreign language was made by scholars that they substantiated the principle of the professional orientation of the teaching material when teaching a foreign language in a non-linguistic institution. The authors emphasized that learning a foreign language should not be an end in itself, but a means to achieve the goal of raising the level of education, erudition within its specialty. Accounting for the specifics of profiling specialties, from their point of view, should be conducted in the following areas: work on special texts, study special topics for the development of oral speech, study a minimum vocabulary in the corresponding specialty, create teachers manuals for activating the grammatical and lexical material students.

The subject «foreign language» has a number of features. Specificity of the subject is determined by the direction of the path of mastering a foreign language.

L. S. Vygotsky noted that the assimilation of a foreign language proceeds by the opposite of that which is the development of the native language. The child learns the native language unconsciously and unintentionally, and the foreign language — beginning with awareness and intention. Therefore, we can say that the development of the native language goes from the bottom up, while the development of a foreign language is from the top down.

The second feature of a foreign language as an academic subject is that the language is both a means and a goal of learning. The trainee assimilates the easiest linguistic means, takes possession of various types of speech activity, which until a certain point are the goal of learning, and then they are used by him for mastering more complex linguistic actions, i.e. are already a means of learning.

An essential feature of a foreign language as a subject is its heterogeneity. Considering the aspects of linguistic phenomena, one can say that their initial base is formed by speech activity, which is the main object of learning a foreign language. We agree with G. V. Kol'shanskii, who notes that regardless of the degree of mastery of the language, the knowledge of individual elements of the language, such as individual words, individual sentences, individual sounds, can not be attributed to the notion of mastery of the language as a means of communication. For educational purposes, regardless of the different types and forms of teaching the language — from courses to a specialized institution of higher learning, from general education schools to schools with the teaching of a number of subjects in a foreign language — language proficiency should always be considered in terms of the ability to participate in real communication.

The goal of teaching foreign languages ​​in non-linguistic universities is to reach a level sufficient for practical use foreign language in future professional activity. If in a language university a foreign language is a special base, then in other universities it is an application to a common culture, therefore, in the non-language university, the formulation of the ultimate goal requires specification. Practical mastery of a foreign language is only one side of the vocational-oriented learning of the subject. According to A. A. Rybkina, a foreign language can become not only an object of assimilation, but also a means of developing professional skills. This implies the expansion of the concept of «professional orientation» for teaching foreign language, which included one component — the professional-oriented orientation of the content of the teaching material. Professional-oriented training provides for the professional orientation not only of the content of teaching materials, but also of activities that include themselves receptions and operations, forming professional skills. The professional orientation of the activity, firstly, requires the integration of the discipline «foreign language» with profiling disciplines; secondly, he sets before the presenter of a foreign language the task of teaching the future specialist on the basis of interdisciplinary connections to use a foreign language as a means of systematically replenishing his professional knowledge, and also as a means of forming professional skills and skills; thirdly, it involves the use of forms and methods of instruction that can provide the formation of the necessary professional skills and skills of a future specialist. Professional-oriented learning a foreign language in non-linguistic universities requires a new approach to the selection of content. It should be focused on the latest achievements in this or that sphere of human activity, timely reflect scientific achievements in the spheres directly affecting the professional interests of the educators, and provide them with an opportunity for professional growth. Galskova noted the content of teaching a foreign language should include: — areas of communication, topics and situations, speech actions and speech material that take into account the professional direction of students — language material (phonetic, lexical, grammatical, spelling), rules for its design and skills — a set of special (speech) skills that characterize the level of practical mastery of a foreign language as a means of communication, including in intercultural situations, — a system of knowledge and its national and cultural characteristics of the country and the realities of the target language. Taking into account the merits of this approach, it seems expedient to use it when developing a model for professionally oriented foreign language teaching for students of non-linguistic universities, namely, when considering its content component. Taking into account the above, it is possible to identify the following structural elements the content component of the model of vocational-oriented foreign language teaching:

Communicative skills on the types of speech activity (speaking, listening, reading, writing) on ​​the basis of general and professional vocabulary. The ultimate goal of vocational-oriented learning of dialogical speech is the development of the ability to conduct a conversation, purposefully exchange professional information on a certain topic. The training of monologic speech consists in the formation of the ability to create various genres of monologic texts: communication of professional information, presentation with the report, the expanded statements during discussion, discussions both with preliminary preparation, and without it. The purpose of the professional-orienteering This training of listening is the formation of the ability to perceive and understand the speech of the interlocutor in a foreign language, generated in a monologue form or in the process of dialogue in accordance with a certain real professional sphere, situation. The result of learning to read is the formation of the skills of mastering all kinds of reading publications of different functional styles and genres, including special literature. The ultimate goal of teaching the letter is to develop the communicative competence necessary for professors regional written communication, manifested in the skills of abstract presentation, annotation, as well as the translation of professionally meaningful text from a foreign language into Russian and from Russian into a foreign language. Language knowledge and skills, which include knowledge of phonetic phenomena, grammatical forms, rules of word formation, lexical units, terminology, characteristic of a particular profession. The knowledge and skills under consideration represent a composite part of complex skills — speaking, listening, reading, writing. Socio-cultural knowledge, as N. D. Galskova have the goal of familiarizing learners not only with a new way of speech, but also with a culture of the people speaking the language they are studying.

The main and final goal of the training is to ensure that students of non-linguistic specialties are actively proficient in a foreign language as a means of forming and formulating thoughts in the field of daily communication and in the field of thus, under the vocational-oriented understand the learning, based on the needs of students in the study of foreign language, dictated that future profession or specialty, which in turn, require its study. The term «professionally-oriented learning» is used to describe the process of teaching a foreign language in a non-linguistic university, focused on reading literature on the specialty, studying vocabulary and terminology, and more recently on communication in the sphere of professional activity.

References:

  1. Ivanova O.Yu. Professional-oriented learning a foreign language in non-linguistic faculties of universities. Eagle: 2005. 114 p.
  2. Galskova N. D. Modern methods of teaching a foreign language: A handbook for teachers. M:2000. 165 p.
  3. Obraztsov P.I, Akhulkova A. I., Chernichenko O. F., Designing of professionally oriented technology of education. Orel, 2005. 61 p.
  4. Rybkina A. A. Pedagogical conditions for the formation of professional mentees cadets of educational institutions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in the process of teaching a foreign language. Saratov: 2005. 152 p.
  5. Zinnurova F. M. Formation of professional and language competence of students of secondary vocational education in the polyethnic region (on the example of building specialties): 2006. 25 p.


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