In today's developing world, progress takes place every day in the field of science and technology. Of course, technical development makes our life easier, but we need to think about how we achieve all this. After exhausting natural reserves for the sake of satisfying human needs, we inflict great damage on nature, as a result of which there are various ecological problems that affect not only a certain region or state, but the whole world.
Each state in accordance with economic development and geographical location has its own environmental problems. Unfortunately, the Republic of Uzbekistan is not an exception. Today, independent Uzbekistan is a large industrial and agrarian state with further development of machine building, energy, chemical, food industry and transport complexes, which will come to the fore. The development of production negatively affects the social-ecological situation in the republic.
Protection of nature and environmental problems facing the Republic, the following:
- Problems of nature protection in Angren-Almalyk Chirchik, Fergana-Margilan, Navoi and other areas where large regional industrial complexes are located. The socio-ecological situation in these regions is not very good. Since the various gases and waste generated in industrial centers lead to a deterioration in the state of the environment.
- Environmental problems in the agro-industrial complex.
- Another problem is the pollution of industrial wastewater from pesticides and mineral fertilizers.
- Protection and reproduction of flora and fauna, expansion of the network of reserves and national parks .
Currently, most production processes use open technological cycles associated with the release of solid particles and waste gases into the atmosphere, the chemical composition and concentration of which are determined by the features of production. Sources of industrial dust are technological processes, such as grinding, grinding, sieving, etc. [1, p.210]. Because of these emissions, various diseases such as iodine deficiency in the body, bronchial asthma and other oncological diseases occur. For the prevention of the above diseases, special medical centers are being opened for workers who work in dangerous departments of the enterprise are paid additional wages for harm to their health.
The main negative effects of air pollution in urban areas:
‒ Reduction of solar ultraviolet radiation to 30 %, decrease in the duration of sunshine to 15 %;
‒ increase in comparison with the background of gaseous impurities by a factor of 5–25 in the condensation nuclei of water vapor molecules by a factor of 10 or more, the total mass of dust is 10 times or more;
‒ increase in comparison with the background of aerosol impurities by 100–1000 times;
‒ increase in cloud and fog 30 %, fogs in winter — by 200 %;
‒ the temperature of the daily minimum is 1.0–9.0 ° C higher;
‒ wind speed: the annual average is 20–30 % less, strong gusts — 10–20 % less, sewers — 5–10 % more;
‒ the content of toxic heavy metals and carcinogenic substances in aerosols of technogenic landscapes of urbanized areas is increased by an average of 4–5 times with background;
‒ increased risk of diseases of the population with diseases, the nature of which depends on the type of pollutant (allergy, respiratory diseases, cardiovascular system, etc.);
‒ increased wear of materials of structures, structures, monuments of architecture due to the impact of various types of chemical, physical and chemical and microbiological corrosion;
‒ reduction of areas covered by vegetation, diseases of trees;
‒ local climate change, biochemical circuits of the main components of the atmosphere (water, nitrogen, sulfur, carbon), an increase in the number of rains, the predominance of acid precipitation;
‒ long-term consequences associated with genetic changes. [2, p.131]
In addition to air pollution in Uzbekistan, there is another ecological problem that affects the whole of Central Asia — this is the tragedy of the Aral Sea. Over the past decades, the water level in the sea has greatly decreased. By now, the Aral Sea has almost completely disappeared as a result of human economic activity. In the coastal areas of the Aral Sea, atmospheric precipitation decreased several times. Their average value is 150–200 mm with a significant unevenness in the seasons. High evaporability noted (up to 1700 mm per year) with a decrease in air humidity by 10 % [3, p.55].
As you know, President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Sh.M.Mirziev delivered a speech at the 72nd UN Assembly, where he raised the issue of the Aral Sea: «Uzbekistan supports the draft conventions on the use of water resources in the Amudarya and Syrdarya river basins developed by the UN Regional Center for Preventive diplomacy. I would again like to draw your attention to one of the most acute environmental problems of our time — the Aral catastrophe.... Overcoming the consequences of the desiccation of the sea requires today the active consolidation of international efforts. We support the implementation in full of this year's special UN program to provide effective assistance to the population affected by the Aral Sea crisis» .
The salvation or annihilation of this world is only in our hands. After all, for as much as a thousand years, we have used many resources of nature. But what was given in response? The destruction of the ozone layer, depletion of natural resources, global warming, the disappearance of many species of animal and plant life — that's what we give to nature! And this is only the beginning. Let's save our Earth together!
- Kovalenko L.I, Rodionova G.M, Chumakova Z. V., Zrelova L. V. Fundamentals of Ecology and Environmental Protection: Textbook / Ed. A. P. Arzamastseva. — Moscow: Publishing House «Medicine», 2008.
- Manankov A. V. Geoecology. Industrial ecology. Tomsk publishing house TGAU, 2010.
- Velichko M.V, Efimov V.V, Imanov G.M Economics and noosphere. Scientific and methodological bases of state management of social and economic development in the conditions of globalization. Noospheric (ethical-ecological) approach. — St. Petersburg: ANO VPO «Smolny Institute of the Russian Academy of Education, Department of Psychology, Acmeology, Noo-Spheriology and Pedagogy», IFES Publishing, 2012.