Education for autistic preschool children to help integrate into community in the Northern mountainous areas of Vietnam: reality and solutions | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Автор:

Рубрика: Педагогика

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №50 (184) декабрь 2017 г.

Дата публикации: 18.12.2017

Статья просмотрена: 10 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Тран Т. М. Education for autistic preschool children to help integrate into community in the Northern mountainous areas of Vietnam: reality and solutions // Молодой ученый. — 2017. — №50. — С. 278-282. — URL https://moluch.ru/archive/184/47313/ (дата обращения: 24.10.2019).



Education for autism was not considered as an important research subject in Southeast Asia in general and in Vietnam in particular. But thanks fully, researchers pay more and more attention to this special subject. This work give some investigation on this subject, then propose educational measures to help preschool children overcome difficulties, develop personality, and integrate into community. It is also an overview of the study results on the reality of education for preschool autistic children in the northern mountainous areas of Vietnam and proposes some educational approaches for autistic children at local preschools.

Keywords: autism, special needs, children, autistic children, preschool children, education, Vietnam

  1. Theoretical basis

At present, preschool children with autism in the country in general, and in Northern mountainous areas of Vietnam in particular are promptly increasing while the early detection and education still get many difficulties and limitations. It is necessary to implement research and evaluation on the reality of education for autistic children in the Northern mountainous areas in order to propose educational measures to help preschool children overcome difficulties, develop personality, and integrate into community. The article presents an overview of the study results on the reality of education for preschool autistic children in the northern mountainous areas of Vietnam and proposes some educational approaches for autistic children at local pre-schools.

To implement this study, the researcher has surveyed 80 administrators, 520 teachers at 28 preschools, and 20 administrators and teachers at the Center of Education Development and Support for children with disabilities in Thai Nguyen, Bac Kan, Tuyen Quang and Dien Bien provinces in 2015 and 2016; used method of inquiry through anklet, observation, pedagogical product research method; processed survey results by mathematical statistics [1, p.28–34].

  1. Research results of reality
    1. Proportion of preschool children with autism at educational institutions

The data collected from the questionnaire survey of teachers, school administrators, and management files of children show that the number of preschool children with evidence of autism accounts for about 3 % to 4 % of children in the age group; however, most of them have not been officially diagnosed and accredited. The care and education for children at preschool are mainly carried out in the way of integration into groups of children with normal developmental characteristics.

2.2. The awareness of the subjects in the survey on education to help autistic preschool children to integrate into the community

The perception of the concept of autism, and inclusive education for autistic preschool children

We used the question: “How do you understand the concept of autism, inclusive education for preschool autistic children”; the contents of these concepts are demonstrated in the questionnaire . The survey results and data processing showed that 62.5 % of administrators and 61.3 % of teachers were correctly aware of the concept, “Autism is a form of lifelong developmental disability, characterized by three major shortcomings, communication, social interaction, and limited and repeated in behaviors and preferences”; 80 % of administrators’ comments and 54.4 % of teachers’ comments were conceptually correct when saying, “Autistic syndrome is a syndrome of diffuse developmental disorder due to brain abnormalities, which occurs in the early years of the child’s life with specific manifestations in such areas as: poor social interaction, language, communication and behavioral disorders; 66.25 % of administrators and 81.9 % of teachers were correctly aware that “inclusive education for autistic preschool children is a process of organizing activities for autistic children to communicate and interact in natural and social environment, and participate in activities with children with normal developmental characteristics; providing the simplest and most basic cultural knowledge, forming life skills consistent with the development of preschool age and characteristics, which helps children integrate into the community”; 33.75 % of administrator and 18.1 % of teachers confused about this issue.

From the data obtained we have found that the proportion of administrators and teachers in the survey group who correctly perceived the concept of inclusive education for autistic preschool children is relatively high, but many of them did not clearly and accurately understand this issue.

Perception of inclusive education content for autistic children at preschool

The correct understanding of education content is the basis for administrators, and teachers to develop and organize educational activities to help children integrate into the community. To explore this issue, we used the question: “What content do you think should be included in education for autistic preschool children?” Administrators and teachers asserted that it was essential to development language — communication skills (86.4 %); Skills to form learning habits through playing (60.2 %); Self-care skills (89.3 %); Physical activity skills (84.0 %); Physical hygiene, clothing hygiene, eating hygiene, environmental hygiene, personal hygiene habits and self-care (82.6 %); Daily living skills (61.9 %); Skills to expand children’s relationships with others and how to behave appropriately (54.3 %).

For additional questions on this issue, most administrators’ and teachers’ answers showed their awareness of the issues mentioned above through a number of training programs, or self-studying documents. Many emphasized that it was necessary to develop those contents for autistic children due to the characteristics of their physiological disorders.

Perception of educational methods for autistic preschool children

To assess the current situation of awareness about the inclusive education method for autistic children, the researcher used the question: “What kind of method does the teacher need to follow to help autistic children integrate into the community”? Survey data showed that 56.12 % of respondents agreed the psychomotor teaching method should be used; 63.26 % of respondents stated that the segmented time distribution method should be applied; 82.65 % said that the group method should be used; 47.6 % chose applied behavior analysis (ABA); 70.41 % replied that Treatment and Education of Autistic and Communication related handicapped Children (TEACCH) was necessary; 58.76 % agreed that pedagogical methods should be used to help autistic children to integrate into the community.

Most administrators and teachers believe the attention for autistic children in an inclusive education environment is not paid as much as in a specific one, and that educational methods for children with normal developmental characteristics cannot be applied to autistic children. Autistic children need specific intervention methods. Administrators and teachers also realized that their awareness of educational methods and how to apply those methods to educate autistic children is still limited [2, p.134–137].

Perception of the role of preschools and Centers of Education Development and Support for children with disabilities in inclusive education for autistic children in reality

In the orientation of inclusive education for autistic children in pre-school institutions, the researcher has paid much attention to the awareness of administrators and teachers on the role of the local schools and center of education development and support for children with disabilities in helping children integrate into the community. The question “Do you think what is the role of the preschools and education centers for children with disabilities in inclusive education for autistic children?” The survey results show that 81 % of the administrators’ answers and 68.35 % of the teachers’ answers agreed that preschools and education centers for children with disabilities had the role of advising parents, the community on how to take care of and educate autistic children, updating new information on methods of caring and educating children with autism; 92.0 % of administrators and 88.4 % of teachers replied that preschools and education centers for children with disabilities had the role of building an active educational environment that facilitates the education of children with autism; 100 % of administrators and 95.5 % of teachers stated that preschools and education centers for children with disabilities had the role of detecting early autism in children by specific measures; 90.0 % of administrators and 92.4 % of teachers stated that preschools and education centers for children with disabilities had the role of organizing the educational co-ordination process to help autistic children gradually get acquainted with and integrate into social life; 80.0 % of administrators and 83.3 % of teachers stated that preschools and education centers for children with disabilities had the role of assessing the change of autistic children after the intervention process; 100.0 % of administrators and 86.7 % of teachers believed that preschools and education centers for children with disabilities had the role in treatment and rehabilitation for children at the centers, preschools and at home; 90.0 % of administrators and 84.07 % of teachers agreed that preschools and education centers for children with disabilities had the role of developing a coordination program for early intervention of autistic children in the direction of inclusive education at preschool.

2.3. The reality of inclusive education for autistic preschool children

The reality of education planning for autistic children

Utilizing the questionnaire including 10 issues to survey participants on the reality of education planning for autistic children in an inclusive classroom, the researcher has obtained the following results:

Table 1

Assessment on the education planning for autistic children in an inclusive classroom

No.

Assessment contents

Scores

Ranking

1

Identify bases for the planning

4,1

1

2

Evaluate the advantages, disadvantages, and the educational conditions of children

3,1

9

3

Identify the objectives of inclusive education

3,4

4

4

Develop the contents of inclusive education

3,2

7

5

Determine the inclusive education methods for children

3,5

2

6

Determine the means of organizing inclusive education activities for children

3,3

5

7

Determine time and process of intervention

3,2

7

8

Determine the method of coordinating with teachers of the local center for inclusive education development and support.

3,0

10

9

Specify the socialization of inclusive education

3,3

5

10

Schedule the activities for testing and evaluating the results of intervention

3,5

2

Grade point average

3,36

As can be seen from the table, preschool teachers had planned inclusive education for autistic children in their overall education schedule. In planning, well-done activities are ranked from high to low, namely: Identify bases for the planning (4.1 points — ranked No. 1); Determine the inclusive education methods for children, and Schedule the activities for testing and evaluating the results of intervention (3.5 points — ranked No. 2); Identify the objectives of inclusive education (3.4 points — ranked No. 4). Important factors affecting the effectiveness of inclusive education for autistic children include Evaluate the advantages, disadvantages, and the educational conditions of children, Determine the method of coordinating with teachers of the local center for inclusive education development and support, Specify the socialization of inclusive education. Low scores for these factors show that inclusive education has not received much attention in planning.

Educational contents for autistic children

The researcher used the question: “What kind of education contents do you pay much attention to in your teaching?”. The survey results showed that the education contents were focused on training physical hygiene, clothing hygiene, eating hygiene, environmental hygiene, and self-care skills for children (81.3 % of responses); Physical activity skills (64.0 % of responses); Learning through playing (60.2 % of responses); Daily living skills (61.9 % of responses); Language skills (56.4 % of responses); Communication skills (54.3 % of responses).

The reality of applying inclusive education methods for children

The survey results showed that the group method was frequently applied by 82.6 % of teachers. The group method was evaluated as good by 58.0 % of teachers; as fairly good by 21.2 % of teachers; as average by 15.3 % of teachers; and 5.5 % as weak. In combination with observation method, the researcher has found that due to the large number of children in one class, teachers did not have enough time, and ability to pay close attention to the activities of each autistic child. Some autistic children went to school almost exclusively for care.

Psychological counseling method was frequently applied by 42.8 % of teachers in inclusive education for children; temporarily used by 36.2 % of teachers and never used by 21 % of teachers. The psychological counseling method was evaluated as good by 39 % of teachers; as fairly good by 22.5 % of teachers; as average and weak by 38.5 %.

Assessment and feedback method was frequently applied by 80.6 % of teachers; temporarily used by 4.1 % of teachers, and never used by 21 % of teachers. The assessment and feedback method was evaluated as good by 59.18 % of teachers; as fairly good by 21.43 % of teachers; as average by 15.31 %; and as weak by 4.08 %. Many teachers had difficulties in identifying and using the rating scale to diagnose and evaluate the development of a child; most teachers used educational methods that motivated and encouraged children [3, p.89–92].

The Applied Behavior Analysis method (ABA) was frequently used by 27.6 % of teachers; temporarily used by 31 % of teachers, and never used by 41.4 % of teachers. This is considered as the most effective way to educate autistic children, especially for those with behavioral disorders; however, teachers are required to have expertise in inclusive education. If teachers do not have the knowledge and skills, they cannot apply this method. The ABA method was evaluated as good by 26 % of teachers; as fairly good by 36.7 % of teachers; as average and weak by 37.3 %.

The Picture Exchange Communication System method (PECS) is a good means to help children communicate non-verbally, used by many specialized teachers in inclusive education for autism children. The survey results showed that this method was frequently used by 22.4 % of teachers; temporarily used by 20.7 % of teachers, and never used by 56.9 % of teachers. The PECS method was evaluated as good by 35.9 % of teachers; as fairly good by 36.7 % of teachers; as average and weak by 27.4 %.

Education planning method for personal intervention is a unique approach to inclusive education for autistic children. The method was frequently used by 21.3 % of teachers; temporarily used by 26.5 % of teachers, and was not used by 52.2 % of teachers. In comparison with other methods, the method was applied with lower frequency; however, it was evaluated as good by 76.1 % of teachers; as fairly good by 23.9 % of teachers.

Treatment and Education of Autistic and Communication related handicapped Children (TEACCH) was frequently applied by 70.4 % of teachers; temporarily used by 20.6 % of teachers, and was not used by 9 % of teachers. The method was highly appreciated by teachers and 68.8 % evaluated it as good; 23.6 % as fairly good; and 7.6 % as average and weak.

Occupational Therapy (OT) was frequently applied by 25.3 % of teachers; temporarily used by 15.8 % of teachers, and was not used by 58.9 % of teachers. In order to carry out occupational therapy, it is necessary to have facilities such as massage equipment, springs, skateboards and big balloons, etc. In reality, most preschools do not really meet such requirements. This is also the reason why teachers have not appreciated this treatment. Only 28.7 % of the teachers evaluated it as good; 34.9 % as fairly good; 20.1 % as average; and 16.3 % as weak.

The psychomotor teaching method was frequently applied by 56.1 % of teachers; temporarily used by 25.5 % of teachers, and never used by 18.3 % of teachers. 39.8 % of the teachers evaluated it as good; 30.6 % as fairly good; 17.3 % as average; and 12.3 % as weak.

Overall, all the methods given in the questionnaires have been applied by teachers; however, some specialized methods have not been frequently utilized.

The cooperation between the local preschools and centers of education development and support for children with disabilities in inclusive education for autistic children in reality

The inclusive education for autistic children at preschools will not be effective without the cooperation of specialists from the local education development and support center. The researcher highly appreciates the cooperation model and potential outcomes when implementing this model in educating autistic children at preschools. The study showed that preschools had cooperated with local education development and support centers to educate children. 32.5 % of the survey responses stated that teachers and preschools actively cooperated with local centers to diagnose for early detection of autistic manifestations, explore the abilities and the needs of children; 27.6 % of the responses believed that there was collaboration between two sides in developing objectives and plans for the intervention activities; 28.1 % agreed that there was cooperation in implementing education schedules for autistic children but those activities were not permanent; 19.5 % said that there was cooperation in assessing the outcomes of inclusive education for children. Interviewing with teachers and administrators at preschools, the researcher found that the cooperation between preschools and the local education development and support center was only implemented in some schools near the center. Only when teachers and administrators at preschools pay close attention to the education for autistic children, would the cooperation be done. Overall, the implementation of coordination had many difficulties, sometimes even formalism and less effective.

The outcomes of inclusive education for autistic children at preschools and the causes

To obtain data for this issue, the researcher used question with three rating assessment level. The results are shown as follows:

Fig. 1. The outcomes of inclusive education for autistic children at preschools

22.5 % of responses stated that inclusive education for autistic children at preschools was effective; 29 % considered as average; and 48.5 % as not effective. Teachers and administrators believe that in the preschool environment, for many different reasons, autistic children have not received appropriate educational programs yet. The main causes include: children have not been diagnosed and detected timely; no timely intervention by specialists in medicine, psychology and special education for autistic children; classroom teachers do not have enough knowledge and skills in specialized care and education for autistic children in the context of inclusive education; due to limited time, the number of children in group/class is large, so children are not given adequate attention; the facilities do not meet the requirements for specialized education; the perception of many parents is not correct about their children’s problems; many parents do not have enough conditions to take care of their children, or do not accept a child with unusual developmental characteristics to be proactive in coordinating with teachers or seeking for education specialists for assistance; the coordination mechanism between pre-school, preschool teachers, education specialists, and local education development and support center in inclusive education has not been permanent and effective yet.

Results of in-depth interviews show that some teachers believed that autistic children should be taught in specialized classes with specialists; in an inclusive education environment, normal teachers do not have enough knowledge and skills to help children make progress.

2.4. Recommendations

In order to implement inclusive education for autistic preschool children in the Northern mountainous areas, the researcher has proposed the following measures:

– Raise awareness for administrators, teachers, and parents about autistic children in preschool age; about inclusive education for preschool children and the need for coordinated education between preschools, families, and the education development and support centers in inclusive education for autistic preschool children nowadays.

– Organize activities to detect and provide timely intervention for autistic children with the help of health authorities, psycho-diagnostic centers and local education development and support centers for disabled children.

– Strengthen coordination mechanism between preschools and local education development and support centers in order to effectively implement inclusive education for autistic children at local preschools in all stages of the educational process (education planning, intervention, therapy, evaluation).

– Regularly organize and carry out activities to foster the capacity of detecting and providing early intervention for preschool teachers, parents with autistic children; have practical policies to support preschool teachers in implementing inclusive education for classes with autistic children.

– Permanently assess and withdraw lessons from the inclusive education for autistic children at preschools to improve the quality of inclusive education for children.

  1. Conclusion

Based on the research findings, the researcher believes that different measures should be taken to provide administrators and teachers in preschool institutions, parents and education development and support centers with adequate and profound knowledge of autistic preschool children and the inclusive education model for autistic children; develop and implement measures, comprehensive coordination mechanism between families, preschools, and education development and support centers in line with actual conditions of the locality to promote the quality of education for autistic preschool children in the Northern mountainous areas.

References:

  1. Kuroda Manabu, (2009), General Education for Children with Mental Retardation — Lecture Materials, Special Education Department — Hanoi Pedagogical University.
  2. Nguyen Van Thanh, (2006), Autistic Children — Educational Approaches, Ho Chi Minh Religion Publishing House.
  3. Tran Thi Thiep, Bui Thi Lam, Hoang Thi Nho, Tran Thi Minh Thanh, (2006), Early intervention and inclusive education for children with disabilities, Education Publishing House.
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): ABA, PECS, TEACCH.


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