Recently, when the market of educational technologies abounds in offers for the most diverse methods of learning English, the question «What method do you teach?" becomes more and more relevant, which indicates an increase in the culture of consumption of intellectual products.
The fundamental methodology is really the oldest and most traditional technique. The fundamental methodology is seriously based in language universities. The translator is never sure of his knowledge of a foreign language, he perfectly understands the unpredictability of emerging speech situations. Being engaged in the classical technique, students not only operate with a wide variety of lexical layers, but also learn to look at the world through the eyes of the «native speaker» — the native speaker.
Classical approach to learning a foreign language is aimed to learn the language from scratch of students of different ages and most often involves. Teachers' tasks include traditional, but important aspects of pronunciation, grammatical base formation, elimination of the psychological and language barrier that impede communication. «Classics» has not changed the goals, but the methods, due to the new approach, are already different.
The classical approach is based on the understanding of the language as a real and full-fledged means of communication, which means that all language components — oral and written speech, listening, etc. — need to be developed in the students systematically and harmoniously. The classical technique partly turns the language into an end in itself, but this can not be considered a drawback. Such a comprehensive approach is aimed, first of all, at developing students' ability to understand and create speech. The methodology involves classes with teachers, but this order (although not quite «fashionable») can not be considered a minus: a teacher who is not a native speaker can analyze and compare two language systems, compare designs, communicate information better, explain grammatical rules, prevent possible errors. General enthusiasm for foreign specialists is a temporary phenomenon, because the western world appreciated the priority of bilingualism (possession of two languages). The greatest value in the modern world is represented by teachers who are able to think in the context of two cultures and communicate the corresponding set of knowledge to students.
Linguistic and socio-cultural method is one of the most serious and comprehensive methods of studying a foreign language are linguistic and sociocultural, involving an appeal to such a component as a social and cultural environment. Supporters of this method firmly believe that language loses its life when teachers and students set out to master only «lifeless» lexical and grammatical forms. Someone noticed that «a person is a product of culture». Language — too. And most convincingly, this is confirmed by our language mistakes.
Learning English can use the grammatically correct expression of The Queen and Her relatives, but the Briton will hardly understand what the Royal Family means; or, for example, a phrase such as the Hero — the spokesman for the author's ideas — was translated by the sentence «The hero is the loudspeaker of the author», and ideally it was required to use the «mouthpiece». Such curiosities occur quite often. Let's turn to more subtle matter: for example, if for our compatriot who speaks the language superficially, the difference between the expressions Do not you want to go? And would you like to go? Not very great, then for the Briton it is of principle, for the former will perceive it as not the best tone. Habitual for our business communication. Which questions are you interested in? Often translated as «What problems are you interested in?» not taking into account that in English the word «problems» has a steadily negative connotation. Correctly this question will sound: «What issues are you interested in?"
Most of the techniques initially allow such «bloopers», writing off them to «ignorance of the country». But at the present stage, when the interest in individual cultures and nations is constantly increasing such errors are already unforgivable. The linguistic-sociocultural method takes into account the simple fact that 52 % of the errors are made under the influence of the native language, while 44 % lie within the studied language. We used to watch the correctness of speech; now, in addition, they want to increase its content. The meaning of the transmitted information is important, that is, the communicative level, because in any case the ultimate goal of communication is to be understood.
The language-socio-cultural method includes two aspects of communication — linguistic and intercultural. Our vocabulary was replenished with a new word bicultural — a person who easily navigates in national features, history, culture, customs of two countries, civilizations, if you like, worlds. For a student at a language university, it is not so much the high level of reading, writing, translation that is important (although this is by no means excluded), and the «linguistic and sociocultural competence» is the ability to «dissect» the language under a culture microscope. The linguistic and socio-cultural method unites language structures (grammar, vocabulary, etc.) with extra linguistic factors. Then, at the junction of the world outlook on a national scale and the language, that is, a kind of way of thinking (let's not forget that a person belongs to the country in whose language he thinks), that rich world of language is being born, which the linguist W. von Humboldt wrote: «Through the diversity of the language, the richness of the world and the diversity of what we know in it open up to us»... The linguistic and sociocultural methodology is based on the following axiom: «The structure of language structures is based on sociocultural structures». We learn the world through thinking in a certain cultural field and use the language to express our impressions, opinions, emotions, perceptions. The goal of learning the language with this method is to facilitate the understanding of the interlocutor, the formation of perception on an intuitive level. Therefore, every student who chooses such an organic and holistic approach must treat language as a mirror that reflects geography, climate, people's history, conditions of life, traditions, everyday life, everyday behavior, creativity.
The communicative approach is the first line in the popularity rating of techniques actively maintains a communicative approach, which, as its name implies, is aimed at the practice of communication. This methodology perfectly «works» in Europe and the USA. The Oxford and Cambridge approaches to language are united by the fact that the basis of the work of most courses is based on a communicative technique integrated with some traditional elements of teaching. It assumes the maximum immersion of the student in the language process, which is achieved by applying the student's appeal to the native language to a minimum. The main goal of this method is to teach the student to speak fluently at first and then to think on it. It is also important that mechanical reproducing exercises are also absent: their place is occupied by game situations, working with a partner, tasks to search for errors, comparisons and comparisons that connect not only memory but also logic, the ability to think analytically and figuratively. Often in the textbooks are excerpts from the English-English dictionary. It is English-English, not Anglo-Russian, French, Italian, etc. The whole set of receptions helps to create an English-speaking environment in which students must «function»: read, communicate, participate in role-playing games, express their thoughts, and draw conclusions. Oxford and Cambridge courses are aimed at developing not only the language knowledge, but also the creativity and general outlook of the student. The language is very closely intertwined with the cultural characteristics of the country; therefore, the courses necessarily include a regional geography. The British consider it necessary to give a person the opportunity to easily navigate in a multicultural world, and this is easily accomplished with such a powerful unifying factor as English. We have not overcome the isolation so far enough to understand the importance and inevitable necessity of this aspect. For Britain, for all its legendary tradition, globalization is by no means an empty phrase, but a serious problem, the solution of which is trying to find now. Each lesson consists of several sections. The first is usually devoted to the development of speaking skills (for example, discussing the fact-file of a famous person) and analyzing some grammatical constructions, performing a written task on the practice of communication, discussing certain topics in pairs, drawing dialogues based on suggested prompts, listening to audio- cassette, as well as securing and repeating the material covered in previous sessions. The second is aimed at the development of language skills (skills development): «honing» vocabulary by performing oral and written exercises. Then follows the work with the text (typical for English textbooks filing — small numbered paragraphs), and reading is also varied (scan reading, reading for gist, summary reading, etc.). Work on the text, as a rule, is preceded by classes in pairs, answers to questions, filling out tables. All this is good orients the student on the perception of subsequent information, stimulates interest in reading. The lesson usually completes the audio part, which is also preceded by various exercises that make it easier to perceive the new material. A distinctive feature of the «Headway» course is the study of grammar at two levels: first in the context of the lesson, and then more fully in the student's workbook (self-study and revision exercises); it is also summarized at the end of the textbook in a special appendix. The kit also includes the book «Headway Pronunciation», which allows you to practice both pronunciation of words and intonation — no less important aspect of the language palette.
Intensive methodology of teaching English is becoming especially popular. It helps everyone for whom the phrase «time is money» and «money — time» is equivalent. To learn English intensively allows a high degree of patterning — this language consists of a cliché of 25 %. Remembering and practicing a certain range of «stable expressions», you can in principle be able to explain and understand the interlocutor. Of course, the person who chooses the intensity will not be able to enjoy Byron's reading in the original, but the purpose of this course is completely different. The intensive method is aimed at the formation of «expressive speech behavior», and therefore often has a linguistic character. On courses you will most likely be provided with opportunities for unlimited communication and maximum potential realization, and your needs will «get in the focus» of the course. Each student can feel himself as a person. And the training methods, most likely, will be dialogical communication and training. Although there are several variants of test scales for today, they do not differ in principle. As a rule, the scale includes 7 levels: beginner, elementary, pre-intermediate (intermediate), intermediate, advanced (or near native). As most of the foreign courses have been built on the same level of principle. As part of our already learned this productive experience, placement test is an entrance test for selecting a group that determines your level of language proficiency — you can be offered at many uzbek courses. In addition, within the framework of any method of teaching English, current test tests can be applied. They are divided into tests that control reading comprehension, Communicative Competence and cultural knowledge. In addition, the teacher is free to offer and any other test — for example, to check the vocabulary of the lesson, which is often called quiz. «Aerobatics» test methods — preparation for foreign exams. If you pursue the goal of their successful surrender, you will need not only knowledge, but also quickness, the ability to concentrate, discard unnecessary information, highlight the main thing, and also the ability to show maximum creativity in writing essays. Obtaining a diploma or a certificate is a qualification and a guarantee of employment; therefore it requires a particularly serious approach and preparation. So, there are products for every taste on the domestic methodical market, and it remains only to determine the goals, means and, most importantly, methods. Then the choice of courses and the training program will not be so difficult.
- Morrison-Shetlar, Alison/Mary Marwitz, Teaching Creatively: Ideas in Action. Outernet: Eden Prairie, 2001.
- Mc Glynn, Angela, Successful Beginnings for College Teaching. Atwood: Madison, 2001.
- Silberman, Mel. Active Learning: 101 Strategies to Teach Any Subject. Allyn and Bacon: Boston, 1996.
- Van Gundy, Arthur. 101 Activities for Teaching Creativity and Problem Solving. Pfeiffer: San Francisco, 2005.