The basic characteristics of development of traditional trades based on the materials of different regions as Ganja and surrounding areas were investigated. Have been researched the main features of various samples of ancient traditional trades kind in the territory of Azerbaijan on the basis of different materials as archeological and ethnographical sources.
Key words: trade, science, Azerbaijan, history, ethnography, archaeology
Ethnographic exploration of problems and branches of crafts very important, as a way of studying along with history and culture of the people, years generated political-economical and relations of production. Closely bundled to an economy and a daily life of the people, craft employment were one of the basic carriers of national traditions.
Each area of Azerbaijan possesses characteristic environmental resource bases for it, and it promoted development of various crafts. Thus, a number of employments in Ganja, during the period since 19 centuries to the middle of 20 centuries, differed from crafts of other areas of the country. Spreading of a city and population grown has increased demand for craft products. Under such circumstances the handicraft work could not keep the natural character. Already in a number of branches finished articles have been exposed on a market. The increase in quantity of handicraftsmen in a city directly has been bundled to population growth. The competition of production of production plants and factories has not reached still serious level and consequently was created a favorable condition for spreading of traditional occupations there. In addition, products of these craft branches have been closely bundled to a life and traditions of the people, and it would be difficult to replace with their factory production. These research results have been investigated based on formation Ganja branch of ANAS. Because, department of Social Sciences studied life and creation of the great and notable personalities in the western region — Nizami, Abul-U'la Ganjavi, Qivami Mutarrizi, Mahsati Ganjavi, Siti Ganjavi, Ruziya Ganjavi, Mirza Shafi Vazeh, Fikrat Amirov, Gambar Huseynli, Hamid Araslı other classics, also ethnographic and folklore materials in connection with our the national values have been collected and published. Taking into account the large-scale scientific research results and prospects, on April 15, 1995, the next meeting of the Presidium of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences was held for the first time in the city of Ganja.
Based on the rapid development of the industry, given the natural resources, scientific achievements and their results, the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences signed a decree for № 12 / 1 from 1995-on the separation of the Center of the Institute of Chemistry of the filler and the provision of Ganja Regional Scientific Center of independence.
In the year 2008 for a comprehensive study of the creative heritage of the stars of world poetry in their historical homeland began operations department «Nizami». For research in the Ganja State Reserve of History and Culture, covering 1,482 hectares, has a large number of archaeological and ethnographic material in the year 2008 was established by the department of «Archaeology and Ethnography».
In 2011, the year after President, Ilham Aliyev at the annual meeting of the Presidium of ANAS reporting on his recommendation based on the functioning of the Centre Nizami Centre was established «Nizami».
Decree of the President of the Republic, Mr. Ilham Aliyev of 19 December of 2012, on the basis of Ganja Regional Scientific Centre was established Ganja Branch of the National Academy of Sciences.
Taking into account the respective scientific opportunities in the region, natural and geographical conditions, raw material reserves, mineral resources, the ancient historical and national and spiritual values, as well as the strategic position had been ordered for the establishment of Nizami Ganjavi and several institutes of Liberal Studies, Local History, Bio-resources, Ecology and Natural Resources, agricultural issues, as well as the Botanical Gardens. Research directions newly established institutions aimed at the study of the ancient history of the region's rich and unique national and spiritual values, mineral reserves, favorable natural and geographical conditions, flora and fauna. February 14, 2014-the year in Ganja held a visiting session of the Presidium of the National Academy of Sciences in the newly constructed in the architectural traditions of the city of Heydar Aliyev Center. The total number of employees of the Department — 303 people, of which 1 — a full member of the Academy of Sciences, 5 doctors, 42 PhD, conducting research in various fields of science.
Ganja Office issued: a collection of «Bulletin», scientific journals, «Economy», «Nizami». In these scientific journals, along with scientists from the country, published articles and scientists from around the world.
Institutions Division in various fields of science collaborate with numerous scientific organizations in the country and abroad. Among them — the filler Institute of Chemistry, Physics, Computer Science, Microbiology, Archaeology and Ethnography, Literature named after Nizami Ganjavi of ANAS, the National History Museum of Azerbaijan. Our cooperation with the Smithsonian Institute of the United States, the Museum of the University of Tokyo in Japan, University of Turkey (Ankara, Selcuk, Firat), Strasbourg France Library, the Library of Alexandria, Egypt, Kutaisi University of Georgia.
Employee Ganja Branch of ANAS published in 29 countries in publishing Thomson Reuters, Scopus, Web of Science, Web of Knowledge with international status; in other members of the global scientific market authoritative editions.
During the reporting period increased significantly international relations Ganja Branch of ANAS: honored with the right of representation in the scientific and organizing committee of the International Academy of Pure and Applied Sciences; for 2014 the year elected premier organization moderator Expert Council of the Scientific Committee of the World Forum of Young Scientists. Example of international cooperation is the participation of scientists and a number of international scientific conferences held in North Cyprus, France, Egypt. In particular it may be noted together with the Institute of the Smithsonian Museum of the United States and the Tokyo University of the history of historical and archaeological research on the territory of Ganja, aimed at exploring the ancient city's historical heritage.
In accordance with the decrees of the President, Dear Mr. Ilham Aliyev to Ganja office with the participation of outstanding Orientalists world were solemnly marked the 870 year anniversary of the thinker and poet Nizami Ganjavi, the 900th anniversary of the first in the East and in the world of female composer, musician, chess player, thinker and poet Mehseti Ganjavi. Due attention and care of the country's leadership and the Heydar Aliyev Foundation scientists Ganja Branch of ANAS for the first time took part in international events to celebrate the 870th anniversary of Sheikh Nizami Ganjavi in France, Italy, and North Cyprus. Providing user site Nizami can be evaluated as a new contribution of Ganja Branch of ANAS in the case of the scientific study of the life and work of this extraordinary person.
Results of Implemented in office studies were presented in the Science Development Fund under the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan in the form of 3-grant projects that have won. During activity Ganja Branch of ANAS results of research works have been published in publishing 30-plus countries, and are reflected in the 789 scientific works, the 42 copyright certificates, more than 50 books and monographs.
There is no doubt that by the Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, opportunities to achieve harmonious interaction imbued with the spirit of the national identity of our scientific heritage with universal values, in the further activities of the Department of Ganja will promote scientific and technological progress of the country, further preparation of intellectual training.
In the specified period of history in Ganja developed basically carpet weaving, weaver`s business, craft of the tailor, squeeze men, forge and a jeweler, trades of dyer, the stone mason, the cooper and leather dresser, weapon business and other similar craft branches. Among these crafts especially developed carpet weaving. To so wide development of carpet weaving promoted availability of raw materials. In addition carpets were very widely used in a population life-both as furniture, and as a curtain, both as sand bed and as a coating for a floor. In carpet weaving have been held basically women. It has been bundled by that in a Muslim society of the woman preferred to work in house conditions. However also know cases when men were occupied with this craft. Distribution of experts of certain crafts on quarters and neighboring communes was prominent of crafts. For example, it is possible to recollect. In these neighboring communes functioned craft departments. Internal conditions of craft department reflected a sort of employment of his owner. In these departments worked the master and his pupils. In a life of the population of Ganja the role of craft products was great. These products were widely used inhabitants of Ganja they decorated conditions of living rooms, with them filled up a dowry of brides. The dresses created in local departments, suits and caps were an integral part of an attire of town-dwellers. In comparison with villages though the national clothes in 20 century began to supersede them gradually. It also has been bundled to accruing arrival to Ganja representatives of other nationalities. Therefore changes in clothes were more marked. Only female ornaments as an attire constituent part left the national feature. At this time there were fashionable ornaments on a breast, hands, set pins and on clothes. Its hereditary transfer to descendants was one more feature of craft business in Ganja. Hereditary jewelers, weavers, manufacturers of carpets, cobblers, potters and stone borer were especially allocated.
Studying of craft problems actually and in the modern world in sense of the decision of professional problems. From the investigated national employment carpet weaving, the jeweler, a stone dressing and strenuously develop on the basis of ancient traditions already dying out ancient trades, such as a pottery and an art embroidery. Traditional spheres of crafts are invaluable and reliable sources of studying of culture, aesthetic taste, outlook (world outlook) of the Azerbaijan people.
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