This article deals with the scientific research of the process of convergence of stylistic devices. In this field the distinguished types of convergence of stylistic figures, stylistic functions are analyzed as indicatives of a special linguodidactic study of the problem.
Keywords: process of convergence, stylistic figure, stylistic function, stylistics, linguistic variation, speech, stylistic convergence (SC), defamiliarization, semantic field, stylistic devices, alliteration
Convergence in stylistics (Latin convergere — approach, converge) means «the convergence in one place of a beam of stylistic devices participating in a single stylistic function» [Arnold I. V. 1986. — P.63]
Due to the ambiguity of the interpretation by the researchers of the language of the notion of «nomination», the stylistic convergence and convergence of stylistic figures are considered not as a type of nomination, but as a complex stylistic device.
Stylistic convergence is a complex stylistic device based on the interaction of stylistic means of one or different levels of language as a result of the performance of a single stylistic function.
Stylistic convergence contributes to the emergence of a certain stylistic effect. The stylistic effect is the «stylistic impression» that emerges in the addressee as a result of the appearance in the speech of a stylistically significant element that determines the special semantic organization of the utterance or text.
Stylistic reception is a traditional and / or non-traditional way of organizing speech (the text as a whole or a part of it) on the basis of a motivated deviation from the linguistic or speech norm for the purpose of a certain impact on the addressee.
A stylistic figure is a non-traditional, formalized way of organizing speech (the text as a whole or a part of it) on the basis of a motivated deviation from the linguistic or speech norm for the purpose of a certain impact on the addressee. The stylistic figure as a relatively formalized phenomenon can be represented schematically. A stylistic figure is realized at all levels of the language.
The following types of convergence of stylistic figures are distinguished as a complex stylistic device.
- By the nature of the location of interacting stylistic figures in the text: concentrated, dispersed [2, p78], as well as textual convergence of stylistic figures.
Concentrated convergence of stylistic figures is the interaction of stylistic figures within a single sentence as a result of their overall stylistic function.
The dispersed convergence of stylistic figures is the interaction of stylistic figures on the basis of the performance of a common stylistic function within a few sentences, a complex syntactic whole or several complex syntactic integers combined in composition.
Textual convergence of stylistic figures — the interaction of stylistic figures as a result of the performance of a common stylistic function throughout the text as a complete completed work.
- By the number of interacting stylistic figures, we single out a two-component and multicomponent convergence of stylistic figures.
- By the criterion of homogeneity / heterogeneity of stylistic figures entering into interaction, homogeneous, heterogeneous [3, p90] and mixed convergence of stylistic figures are distinguished.
Homogeneous convergence of stylistic figures is the interaction of homogeneous stylistic figures on the basis of the performance of a common stylistic function.
Heterogeneous convergence of stylistic figures is the interaction of heterogeneous stylistic figures on the basis of performing a common stylistic function.
Mixed convergence of stylistic figures is a multicomponent interaction of stylistic figures, two (or more) of which are homogeneous.
- By the presence / absence of the subordination relations between the stylistic figures entering into the interaction, the derivational and equipotential convergence of stylistic figures are distinguished.
Derivational (derivational) convergence of stylistic figures is the interaction of stylistic figures on the basis of the performance of a common stylistic function, in which one stylistic figure is a means for constructing and functioning another stylistic figure.
Equivalent convergence of stylistic figures is an equal interaction of stylistic figures that do not enter into a derivational relation and perform a common stylistic function.
- The way of interaction of stylistic figures is different: the imposition, connection, insertion and syncretism of the ways of interaction of stylistic figures.
The imposition of stylistic figures is the interaction of stylistic figures on the basis of the performance of a common stylistic function, in which stylistic figures overlap.
The connection of stylistic figures is a consecutive connection («chain») of stylistic figures performing a common stylistic function.
Textual convergence of stylistic figures is represented in various genres: in the genre of the story (in artistic speech), anecdote, aphorism and analytical article (in public speech).
The stylistic function is defined as an appointment, the role of a specially organized language means with a stylistic meaning, in the implementation of a specific stylistic task in speech (text). [5, p84]
For convergence artistic figures are characterized by the following stylistic functions. [6, P18–21]
- The pictorial function is a function of the artistically-shaped concretization of the depicted one. Its typed implementations: a visual-shaped function; dynamic image function; function to create the effect of the duration of the action, events; function of contrast enhancement in a visual-image.
- The characterological function is a function of the speech characteristic of the narrator (author, narrator) or character. Its typed implementations: the function of displaying inner speech, through which a psychological characteristic of the subject of this inner speech is given; function of creating improperly direct speech; function of reflection of ease, discreteness of thought.
- Emotional-excretory function is a function of amplification of emotion (feelings, moods), emotional evaluation or emotional state of the narrator or character. Typical implementations of this stylistic function: reinforcement of a specific emotion, emotional assessment or emotional state; function of general expression. Emotional-excretory stylistic function can be combined with an evaluation-characteristic.
- The appraisal-characteristic function acts as a negative-evaluative, positive-evaluative function, a function of creating a humorous effect, a function of creating a lyrical pathetic.
- Actual-excretory function — the function of the current selection of the component (components) of the statement.
- The intonation-rhythmic function is a function of the intonational separation of the components of the utterance (utterances) and the creation of a special («chopped») or slowed down («smooth») rhythm of the narrative.
- Actualizing function — a function of enhancing the convergence of stylistic figures of any stylistic device (stylization, intimization, etc.)
- Advertising function — the function of language design of headings, subtitles and creating an intriguing effect.
- Argumentative-rhetorical function is a function of linguistic design and strengthening of rhetorical argumentation.
For both dispersed and concentrated convergences, the most current-excretory, emotionally-excretory, appraisal-characteristic, intonation-rhythmic and pictorial functions are most characteristic. The high frequency of the actual-excretory and intonation-rhythmic functions is associated with the high frequency of parcellulation, polysyndeton, asyndetone, position-lexical repetition (primarily anaphoric), which contribute to the rhythm of speech and are more often combined with other stylistic figures. The difference of these types of convergence of stylistic figures in the functioning is that for concentrated convergence, the advertising function is more characteristic than for the dispersed one (this facilitates the placement of more information in a small amount, which in turn is related to the requirements for the design of headings and subtitles) and, to a lesser extent, character (which can be explained by the possibility of a more complete, comprehensive reflection of the character's speech within a few sentences than in one sentence The advertised and argumentative-rhetorical functions of concentrated and dispersed convergence are performed primarily in newspaper journalism. In artistic texts, in comparison with newspaper and journalistic, for the convergence of stylistic figures, the most characteristic are graphic, characterological, actual-excretory and emotional-evaluative functions and less characteristic are advertising, argumentative-rhetorical, appraisal and characteristic functions. This allows us to talk about the implementation of the convergence of stylistic figures of the main style features of the appropriate styles (advertising, argumentation, estimated in newspaper and journalistic texts, artistic-figurative fiction in the art texts).
Stylistic figures interacting throughout the text (textual convergence of stylistic figures), participate in the implementation of common for them emotionally-excretory, evaluation-characteristic, characterological, topical-excretory and so for the school and university textbooks and textbooks on the subjects «Contemporary Russian Language», «Stylistics», «Culture of Speech», «Rhetoric» contain brief information about possible combinations of stylistic figures. But this information is not enough for an integral view of the interaction of stylistic figures, which indicates the need for a special linguodidactic study of the problem.
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