An automobile is a dangerous device for humanity | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Автор:

Рубрика: Технические науки

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №27 (161) июль 2017 г.

Дата публикации: 11.07.2017

Статья просмотрена: 7 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Эгамов, Ж. Ж. An automobile is a dangerous device for humanity / Ж. Ж. Эгамов. — Текст : непосредственный // Молодой ученый. — 2017. — № 27 (161). — С. 46-49. — URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/161/45086/ (дата обращения: 26.02.2021).



The article illustrates and analyzes the degree of hazard of poisonous gases of automobiles to human life and its precautions.

Key words:atmosphere, automobiles, poisonous gases, innovative device

Climate change, increasing harmful emissions and extraction in the environment cause environmental degradation. In particular, pollution of atmosphere has become a major problem today. Air pollution is increasing the share of gas produced from vehicles. Of course, in today's development, no country can be imagined without a vehicle. The role of the automobile transport system in the process of development of economic and social spheres of the independent Uzbekistan is unlimited too. Today, we are so accustomed to the car that we do not even think about how much harm it can bring to the environment and, most importantly, to human health during its use. By contrast, one car uses 10–12 liters of petrol per day and emits 25 kg different harmful chemical compounds to the atmosphere. Together with this, one automobile serves to eliminate 4 tons of oxygen, which is necessaryfor human health, per year.

Air is a crucial factor of atmosphere. Its chemical content was formed by the evolution process of the Earth. Air contains 78,08 % nitrogen, 0,93 % argon, 20,95 % oxygen, 0,03 % carbon dioxide, 0,2 % mixture of other gases, 2,6 % water vapors. It should be emphasized that in recent years the main part of sources of contaminationto the atmosphere has been accounted for automobiles. There are more than 200 noxious gases in the content of detrimental smokes released from cars (highly harmful benzo(a)pyrene, lead and others). These compounds cause lung cancer, heart disease, and other serious illnesses. Therefore, measures are taken to reduce the amount of harmful substances. This is especially true for petrol-driven vehicles. The harmful effects of these vehicles on the environment are characterized by excessive and harmful effects on other vehicles. For example, when burned, 1 ton of ethyl petroladds to the air 788.3 kilogramspoisonous substances, with liquefied petroleum gas this number is 585.0 kg, whereas 274.0 kg and 208.5 kilograms of harmful substances are released by condensed gas and diesel fuel respectively.

A comprehensive program for combating environmental pollution by internal combustion engines has been developed and implemented. Environmental requirements designed to control the environmental quality requirements are the key to ensuring environmental safety and rational use of natural resources. For this reason, environmental standards have been set for motor vehicles and fixed assets serving them. It envisages implementation of a number of measures, taking into account the advantages of organizing people's economy on a scientific basis. The proposed limitations and the measures taken will reduce the amount of emissions and pollutants released into the atmosphere by 50–70 % compared to the initial level, but this issue is of paramount importance due to the dynamic development of the economy and the transportation. [1, P. 269].

Airborne pollutants, hydrocarbons, nitrous oxides, aldehydes, ketones are the most dangerous lead. Photovoltaic changes occur under the influence of meteorological conditions when the carbon monoxide is emitted to the air. At the same time, nitric oxide is broken down into nitrogen oxide, and aldehydes and ketones form radicals. As a result of these reactions, smogs appear in large cities. Smog is a toxic gas that will emerge and come back to the ground when all the poisonous dumping of the city joins and reacts.

The lead particles, which come from internal combustion engines, are transported from 1–2 mg to 4–5 mg per 1 cubic meter of atmospheric air. Fruit and vegetables should not be consumed in the fields around big cities. As a result of the night and daytime cars’lead, there are 14–38 m3 / kg lead in 1m3 of air around the main roads. In remote nature this figure is between 0.1 and 0.5 m3/ kg. The lead particles go to all corners of the globe.

The lead particles have been found in the large ice rinks of the Northern Arctic Ocean and Greenland. In large cities with a population of more than a million, the amount of benzo(a)pyrene is about 1.7 m kg at 100 m3 in the air, however the normal amount is considered in the range of 0.2–0.4 m kg. One car takes from air an average of 4 tons of oxygen per year, and emits 800 kg of carbon monoxide and 40 kg of nitrogen oxides and 200 kg of poisonous substances and hydrocarbons to the environment.

According to the data of the World Health Organization, pollution of the environment affected by motor vehicles is characterized by the following indicators: in the USA annually about 142 million tons of harmful substances emitted to the atmosphere, 86 million tons of this is created by result of car movement.

There are three types of polluting materials in the car: waste gases, carter gases and hazardous materials (from fuel tank, carburetor, etc.) generated by fuel disintegration; two types of poisonous substances which are created by the process of combustion: partial decomposition and partial combustion substances as well as nitrogen oxides [2, P.139].

The hazardous gases emitted by automobiles are increasingly exposed to the dangers of human life as to following factors:

– Their distribution in the active biosphere layer.

– The presence of potentially poisonous aggregates for all living things.

– Their presence in theclosest layer of the atmosphere to the Earth, i.e. the human breathing line.

Due to the above-mentioned problemsand taking into consideration that 60 % of the total gas emissions across the country are the share of transportation, and just these harmful gases fall near the earth's surface layer, which is the human breathing surface, it has been designed a cost-effective and comfortable device for all types of vehicles in order to reduce the level of contamination of all the residents of our country by exhaust gases.

Expected solutions

In the result of reduction of exhaust gases it can be achieved avoidance ofthe following issues that adversely affect the human body.

Carbon dioxide affects the red circles in human blood — erythrocytes, and consequently their ability to absorb oxygen. As a result, oxygen is not enough in the body, which, in turn, affects the central nervous system.

Nitrogen oxides. Nitric oxide (NO2) and N2O5 oxide are extremely dangerous. Oxide (nitrogen dioxide) can accumulate strongly toxic nitric acid by combining with moisture. Nitrogen (II) causes inflammationof the mucous membrane of the eyes, and the chest, begets irreversible changes in the cardiovascular system. Only a few nitrogen oxides are also dangerous.

Carbohydrates. The unsaturated carbohydrates are a mixture of several hundred chemical compounds. The mixture has a bad smell and causes many chronic illnesses.

Soot.Soot itself is nontoxic to the body, but it is dangerous as a source of many poisonous hydrocarbons.

Aldehydes inflame respiratory tract and mucous membranes, destroys the nervous system, liver and kidneys.

Expected result.

If the taxes put on ecological pollution paid by car owners are reduced, and implementation of this device is introduced, it will be expected favorable results in both environment and automobile owners, as well as it will be good for human health.

Structure and strength of the device metal

Metal samples. Qualitative instrumentation is made of carbon steel

Structure. 0.6–1.35 % carbon, 0.4 % is manganese and iron

Brand. Y7A, Y8GA

Thermal Processing.High thermo-mechanic and cold deformation.

Power. 3000 MPa

Taking into consideration the practical experience and tested in laboratory conditions, the chemical composition within this innovative device is as follows:

Composition of the chemical mixture in the device

Chemical formula

Name

Amount(%)

1

Burnt metal

Cinder

5 %

2

CaO

Calcium oxide

7 %

3

NaOH

Sodium hydroxide

8 %

4

CMC

Carboxymethylcellulose

0.5 %

5

H2O

Water

79.5 %

It is stated in the Article 50 of the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan that «Citizens are obliged to cautiously care for the natural environment», this indicates that each of us should focus on the protection of the natural environment more deeply. Our first President Islam Karimov emphasized that: «Ecology is one of the most pressing social problems of today's world. Its solution can match to the interests of all peoples, and the present day and the future of civilization are in many respects depends on solving these problems " [3, P.110]. One of the highest responsibilities of all members of our society is to protect the environment. Therefore, each of us should pay special attention to the conservation of the environment by our initiative, by displaying the spirit of patriotism and our social activity.

References:

  1. S. M. Qodirov, S. E. Nikitin “Avtomobil va traktor dvigatellari” (The engines of automobiles and tractors).:T 1992 y.
  2. B.To`layev “Ichki yonuv motorlari nazariyasi va dinamika asoslari” (The theory of internal combustion engines and dynamic basis).:T 2010y.
  3. I. A. Karimov “Xavfsizlik va barqaror taraqqiyot yo`lida” (Security and stability are the key to development).:T 1998 y.
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): CMC, USA.


Ключевые слова

atmosphere, automobiles, poisonous gases, innovative device

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