The problem of the emergence and development of self-esteem is one of the central problems of becoming a child's personality. Self-esteem is a necessary component of the development of self-consciousness; A person's awareness of himself, his physical strength, mental abilities, actions, motives and goals of his behavior, his attitude towards others, to other people and himself.
Self-esteem in Russian psychology was studied in connection with the problem of development and the formation of self-consciousness. These studies are concentrated around two groups of questions. On the one hand, in the general theoretical and methodological aspects, the question of the formation of self-consciousness in the context of a more general problem of personal development is analyzed. On this issue, we can single out the work of such psychologists, teachers as: B.G Ananiev, A.N Leontiev, S.S Rubinshtein, M. N. Skatkin.
In another group of studies, more specific questions are considered, primarily related to the features of self-assessments, their relationship to the assessments of others. One can single out publications by A.I Lipkina, E.I Savon'ko, E.A Serebryakova, V.A Gorbacheva.
L.S Vygotsky assumed that it was at the age of seven that self-esteem began to take shape — a generalized one. Stable, extra-situational and, at the same time, differentiated attitude of the child to himself. Self-esteem mediates the child's attitude to himself, integrates the experience of his activity, and communicates with other people. This is the most important personal instance that allows you to control your own activity from the standpoint of regulatory criteria, to build up a holistic behavior in accordance with social norms. R. Burns, analyzing a large number of studies by American authors, notes that on the verge of preschool and primary school age there is a qualitative leap in the development of self-esteem. However, an extensive interpretation of this concept deprives conclusions of concreteness, does not allow enough to characterize the changes that are taking place. It is quite obvious that the evaluation of oneself does not exist isolated from the concept of the qualities being evaluated. Therefore, self-esteem should be viewed in terms of the general idea of self. According to the data available in science, the composition of the subject's substantial representations of what he is does not include value-neutral qualities that are devoid of personal meaning for the subject. These qualities are endowed by the subject with a high positive or negative value.
The experimental study carried out by Elkonin and his group was based on the following hypotheses:
1) The early «Image of the Self» appears in connection with the «crisis of seven years» because by this age cognitive prerequisites for its formation ripen. It is at this age that the child departs from the immediate fusion of himself. His relationship with himself is mediated.
2) The early «Image of the Self» is rather anticipatory than the ascertaining and more likely value-predetermined than cognitive character.
During the school year, children develop self-esteem. Some situational self-esteem, not associated with a meaningful self-image, appears earlier than the «I-concept». However, self-esteem becomes much more stable and extra-situational precisely when it is associated with the «I-concept», while there are no discernable differences between them. During the school year, «Image of the Self» is doubled. Junior schoolchild in training activities need the ability to set goals and monitor their behavior, manage themselves. To manage yourself, you need to know yourself, evaluate yourself. The process of forming self-control depends on the level of development of self-esteem. Junior students can exercise self-control only under the guidance of an adult and with the participation of peers. Self-image of younger schoolchildren. Self-awareness of the child is carried out in educational activities.
The criteria for self-evaluation are ambiguous. The individual evaluates himself in two ways: by comparing the level of his claims with the objective results of his activity and 2) by comparing himself with other people. The higher the level of claims, the more difficult it is to satisfy them. Success and failure in any activity significantly affect the individual's assessment of his abilities in this type of activity: failures tend to reduce claims, and success raises them. No less important is the moment of comparison: when evaluating oneself, the individual willingly or unwillingly compares himself with others, taking into account not only his own achievements, but also the entire social situation as a whole. The individual's self-esteem is also strongly influenced by her individual characteristics and how important her quality or activity is to her. There are infinitely many private self-evaluations. It is impossible to judge them about a person without knowing the system of his personal values, what qualities or spheres of activity are for him the basic ones. The study of the role of self-esteem in cognitive activity revealed that the child attaches special importance to his intellectual abilities; the assessment of these possibilities by others is always very disturbing. Thus, in the conducted study, none of the students (including those who failed), listing the reasons for their insufficiently effective or poor performance, did not refer to difficulties in understanding the training material, mastering skills, methods of thinking, etc. All children preferred to consider themselves and be considered) lazy, undisciplined, but no one attributed their failure at the expense of insufficient intellectual abilities.
Children, who have adequate self-esteem, are active, resourceful, and vigorous, with interest and independently seek their mistakes in their work, choose tasks corresponding to their capabilities. After success in solving problems, choose the same or more difficult. After a failure check yourself or take a less difficult task.
Children with high adequate self-esteem are distinguished by their activity, their desire to achieve success in educational activities. They are characterized by maximum independence. They are confident that by their own efforts they will be able to succeed in educational activities. This is based on the correct self-assessment of their abilities and abilities. Inadequate low self-esteem in younger schoolchildren is manifested vividly in their behavior and personality traits. Children choose easy tasks. They seem to cherish their success, they are afraid of losing it, and because of this they are afraid of the learning activity in some way. The normal development of children about low self-esteem is hampered by their increased self-criticism, insecurity. They only wait for failure. These children are very sensitive to approval, to everything that would enhance their self-esteem. Children with high self-esteem overestimate their capabilities, the results of training activities, personal qualities. They choose tasks that they cannot do. After failure, they continue to insist on their own or immediately switch to the easiest task, driven by the motive of prestige. Steady self-esteem of a junior high school student forms his level of aspiration. At the same time, the younger schoolchildren need to preserve both self-esteem and the level of claims based on it.
Knowing a person's self-esteem is very important for establishing relations with him, for normal communication, in which people, as social beings, inevitably join. It is especially important to take into account the child's self-esteem. Like everything in it, it is only being formed and therefore, more than an adult, can be influenced, changed. By absorbing certain norms and values in the process of education and upbringing, the schoolboy begins to treat the evaluative judgments of others (teachers, peers) in a certain way as to the real results of his educational activity, and to himself as a person. With age, he more and more clearly distinguishes between his actual achievements and what he could achieve by possessing certain personal qualities. So the pupil in the teaching and educational process is forming an installation to assess their capabilities — one of the main components of self-esteem.
The self-image reflects the child's ideas about what has already been achieved, and what he is striving for, the project of his future — albeit imperfect, but playing a huge role in self-regulation of his behavior in general and learning activities in particular. Self-esteem reflects the fact that the child learns about himself from others, and his increasing self-activity, directed at understanding his actions and personal qualities. It is known that children are treated differently to the mistakes they make. Some, after completing the assignment, carefully check it, others immediately give it to the teacher, the third keep the work long, especially if it is a control, afraid to let it out of your hands. To the teacher's comment; «There is a mistake in your work» — the students react differently. Some ask not to indicate where the error is, but to give them the opportunity to find it and fix it. Others with anxiety, turning pale or blushing, ask; «And what, where?" And, unconditionally agreeing with the teacher, obediently accept his help. Still others try to justify themselves by referring to circumstances. Attitude to mistakes made, to own failures, shortcomings not only in teaching, but also in behavior is the most important indicator of a person's self-esteem.
Most naturally, as already noted, children with correct self-esteem react to errors in their work. They usually even with interest independently look for the error: «They say, I wonder, in what? What? «Children with low self-esteem, if they are offered to find their own mistake, usually silently re-read the work several times, not changing anything in it. Often they immediately drop their hands and refuse to check themselves, motivating that they will not see anything anyway. The benevolent attitude of the teacher, encouragement is an essential stimulus supporting their activity. Encouraged and encouraged by the teacher, they are gradually included in the work and often find a mistake. As already mentioned, the self-esteem of the child reflects not only his attitude to what has already been achieved, but also what he would like to be, his aspirations, his hopes. Self-esteem is closely related to what a person claims.
It was found that there is no connection between the child's self-esteem and the material security of the family. But the strength of the family was very important; In broken families, children with low self-esteem were more likely to be found.
- Ananyev BG «Development of children in the process of primary education and upbringing» / / Problems of education and upbringing in primary school. M., UCHPEDGIZ, 1960.
- Antonova G. P. «Differences in the intellectual activity of schoolchildren in solving problems» // Typical features of mental activity of junior schoolchildren. M., Education, 1968.
- Babansky Yu.K. «Optimization of the educational process in educational activity». M., Education, 1983.
- Burns R. «Development of the Self-concept and education». M., Progress, 1986.