Teaching activities aimed at student’s capacity development are not only focused on activating cognitive activities, but also develop capacity to solve problems that are associated with various cases in students’ life and career in the future. The form of classroom management is not restricted to the scope of classroom, but also extends beyond via innovative experimental activities.
Key words: teaching methods, forms of teaching organization, Vietnam high school, student’s capacity development
The method and form of teaching organization play an important role in student’s capacity development. The method and form of teaching organization should develop activeness, initiative, creativity and apply knowledge and skills of learners; focus on training way to learn, self-study, collaborative skills, teamwork and independent thinking. Thereby, learners could update knowledge by themselves, renew skills and develop capacity; organize various forms of learning; focus on social activities, extracurricular activities, scientific research .
- The positive methods and forms of teaching organization aimed at student’s capacity development.
Teaching aimed at student’s capacity development should apply methods and forms of teaching organization as following:
- For teaching method, it should be focused on group discussion, problems’ solving, typical case study, project-based teaching, tectonic teaching to collaborate with positive teaching techniques such as brainstorming (know, want to learn, learning, how can we learn more), mind mapping.
- For forms of teaching organization, besides the teaching form in class, it should focus on social activities, extracurricular activities, scientific research.
- Process of application methods and positive forms of teaching organization aimed at student’s capacity development.
Teaching process, using methods and positive forms of teaching organization aimed at student’s capacity development should be implemented by a process that includes steps as following:
a) Step 1: Studying lessons’ contents.
Lesson’s contents of educational curriculum in high school are being implemented in a direction «content approach». Therefore, to develop student’s capacity, teachers should adjust, rearrange structure and content of lessons. Studying lessons’ content helps teachers to identify the first result — a type of student’s practical ability .
Besides, studying lessons’ contents, restructuring lesson’s contents will help teachers to choose appreciate methods and forms of teaching organization.
b) Step 2: Individualizing students.
Each student is an individual with differences in capacity, cognitive characteristics. Thus, teachers should know each student clearly in order to have suitable impacts to develop student’s abilities.
In practice nowadays a class in a high school is overcrowded (over 50 students), hence, teachers could not know accurately characteristics of individual. To support this problem, schools should develop «psychological consulting office» at the school. Assessment of psychological experts, results of IQ, EQ tests are vital bases that help teachers to know characteristics of each student .
c) Step 3: Surveying teaching conditions of the school.
The teaching and learning condition of the school affects using methods and forms of teaching organization, especially methods and positive forms of teaching organization. Thus, before deciding on applying any method and form of teaching organization for any lesson, teachers should find out how facilities and equipment of the school are, whether they ensure to meet teaching activities aimed at student’s capacity development or not.
d) Step 4: Teachers study and apply methods and forms of teaching organization suitably for their abilities.
Besides, selecting methods and forms of teaching organization by teachers according to characteristics of each lesson should be based on their specific ability to apply methods and forms of teaching organization appropriately. Applying this method and form of teaching organization may be advantageous for this teacher, but is disadvantage for other teachers. Therefore, teachers should base on their advantages to use methods and forms of teaching organization to reach the highest teaching effectiveness .
e) Step 5: Implementing methods and forms of teaching organization.
After studying lesson’s contents, understanding student’s characteristics and depending on teachers’ ability, teachers apply selected methods and forms of teaching organization for teaching activities. Choosing and implementing methods and forms of teaching organization should meet requirements of student’s capacity development.
The choosing of methods and forms of teaching organization should be implemented via groups to have consistency and suggestions to get the best effectiveness of application.
- Assessing student’s learning results according to capacity development.
Assessing student’s learning results according to capacity development has meanings as following:
a) Supporting student’s development.
Assessing student’s learning results according to capacity development not only concerns knowledge and skill, but considers also student’s ability to solve problems in complex, practical situations; considers student’s behavior and value. Such assessment will support actively for student’s development.
b) Identifying the developing level of each student in every stage of learning.
Assessing results of student’s learning according to student’s development is based on the output standards — requirements that students should achieve in quality and ability after completing a course, class or grade. Output standards are also specified for each lesson/chapter of the subject, for each education activity .
Thus, when assessing results of student’s learning aimed at student’s capacity development collaborates to using results of evaluations at the end of term, at the end of school-year, so it could identify level of student’s development in each stage of learning.
c) Contributing to guidance, adjustment to the teaching and learning.
Assessing results of student’s learning has a great influence on teaching and learning. Vietnamese education has had an unwritten principle for a long time, that is: «how to exam will show how to teach and learn». When assessing results of student’s learning moves to the capacity approach, teaching activities must also change towards this approach. If teachers and students do not change the way to teach and learn, they could not meet requirements of assessment aimed at their capacity development .
It could be said that assessing results of student’s learning aimed at capacity development is a motivation in the teaching activities in high schools.
Developing process of assessing results of student’s learning is aimed at capacity development.
Process of assessing results of student’s learning aimed at capacity development includes steps as following:
− identifying objectives of assessing;
Objectives of assessing reflect the level of compliance that is set out in the program. The compliance is not only simply knowledge, skills, and behaviors, but is also knowledge, skills and behaviors, that have been transformed into qualities and values of students via practical activities (experiments, practice, using knowledge, solving situations).
− selecting methods and forms of evaluation;
The characteristics of assessing aimed at the capacity approach is that using various methods and forms include traditional methods and forms and non-traditional methods and forms such as observations, in-depth interviews and workshops, learner’s diary, learning profile, exercises, practical assessing, self-evaluation and assessing each other. Because methods and forms of assessing are various, it should be chosen methods and forms that suit with assessing of student’s capacity .
− implementing assessment;
When implementing assessment, the first thing, that should be done, is to conduct a exercise system aimed at capacity development. This exercise system is a tool for students to train to form capacity, as well as is a tool for teachers and managers in schools to assess development of student’s capacity and assess level of compliance of teaching process.
Exercises to assess student’s capacity have various forms including quiz, written assignments, short or long term assignments, group or individual assignments, opening questions, closing questions, tasks, requirements, suggestions, etc. In the above types of exercises, the «opening» exercises have more advantages aimed at capacity development. The characteristics of this type of exercise is that without a fixed solution, the student responds to his or her own point of view .
When conducting exercises, it should ensure the differentiation at cognitive level (reproduction, understanding and using, handling and solving problems) in order to evaluate the level of capacity development of each student in each learning stage.
− handling results of evaluation;
Objectives of handling results of evaluation is to determine the level of capacity development of each student after each learning stage; to point out relationship between capacity development and difficult level of tasks or exercises that students have completed .
Results of handling results of evaluation should be processed both qualitative (comments and classifications) and quantitative (charts, graphs, and lines) in order to provide an overview image about student’s capacity development in the teaching process.
− feedback to students and related subjects.
In the teaching process in high schools, the evaluation is responsible for providing information «back» to students and related subjects (teachers, managers, parents). Due to this information student could adjust their learning activities by themselves; teachers could adjust their teaching activities by themselves; managers could adjust their managing activities; and parents could adjust their care and help to their children in learning and training. Assessment in order to respond to students and other stakeholders must be publicized and based on clear specific criteria that could be measured.
Teaching aimed at student’s capacity development must restructure lessons’ contents suitably. Teachers have to identify abilities that students need to reach after each lesson and based on understanding characteristics of student’s cognition and their ability to choose appropriate methods and forms of teaching organization.
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